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A Very Long Tradition of Making Excelente Wines

Wine | How it’s made?

Team Of Sommelier

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Marian H. Barber

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Peter T. Rodriguez

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Kenneth Richardson

wine expert

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Does Wine Help with Anxiety and Stress Relief?

Resveratrol is a component present in red wine, could work in the control of anxiety and depression. Manu popular research tested the effects of this chemical component in a group of mice that were injected with corticosterone, a hormone that controls stress. When the mice were at the highest points of stress, they were given a high dose of resveratrol and their stress decreased markedly.

The presence of biogenic amines in wine

Biogenic amines induce physiological effects that can be moderately severe and manifest as an allergic condition

The presence of biogenic amines in fermented and cured foods is common. The physiological consequences can be counterproductive. The same occurs with organoleptic conditions, since an excess of these substances in foods with a high sensory profile, such as wine, can be altered.

We know about wine that is much more than watercolored with ethanol. We also know that the richer it is, the greater the volume of precursors it contains and, consequently, the greater the potential risk that it will present biogenic amines. Its presence, in addition to altering the organoleptic characteristics of wine and, by extension, of other products such as cured foods, can cause health problems.

Indeed, biogenic vasoactive amines induce physiological effects that can be moderately severe and manifest as an allergic condition: peripheral vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output, and respiration, increased blood glucose, and release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. Since biogenic amines that do not come from the diet, those generated in the body perform important functions in the nervous and vascular systems. Under normal conditions, the body has tools to eliminate them in case of accumulation, and when they have completed their specific function. And it does so through the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) that acts in different systems of the body.

In general, their presence in amounts greater than the recommended limits is a concern, since these molecules, in particular histamine, have been shown to cause headaches and other allergic symptoms, such as diarrhea, palpitations, rashes, and vomiting. Also, there are experimental indications that some biogenic amines such as cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, and tyramine can enhance the toxic effect of histamine. Therefore, we are facing a food safety problem that must be considered in all its aspects. And for this, you have to go to the root of the problem, to the origin of biogenic amines in fermented and cured foods, to know where to act to prevent or treat their presence.

Amines in wines

Today it is possible to know which and how many microorganisms are in wine quickly and reliably most red wines and some white wines undergo malolactic fermentation that catalyzes the conversion of malate to lactate. It is the biochemical degradation of one of the most abundant acids in wine by bacteria that transform it into lactic acid. This fermentation can occur spontaneously, but it is advisable to induce it, selecting the appropriate time and inoculum if you want to obtain a quality product.

In the case of amino acids (which appear in wine from must or pre-fermentation stages and in alcoholic fermentation), the bacterial action generates biogenic amines. The selection of the lactic strain is, therefore, an important criterion when it comes to preventing the formation of these amines. Others, such as the fermentation conditions or the winemaking processes, are also decisive.

However, to act against their training, it is useful to pay attention to a series of tips:

  • Avoid yeast inocula to facilitate malolactic fermentation, as they could be contaminated with bacteria that favor their appearance.
  • Carry out the malolactic fermentation with the species of lactic bacteria Leuconostoc oenos; only thus is its absence assured.
  • Sulfite directly after malolactic fermentation, thus preventing bacterial activity.
  • Barrel aging presents a certain risk in this regard.
  • Maintain impeccable hygienic conditions in the cellar to exclude undesirable microorganisms.

Organoleptic influence

A well-informed consumer about possible fermentation problems in winemaking is capable of detecting organoleptic defects present in wine, associated with certain chemical compounds caused by uncontrolled malolactic fermentation, such as putrescine and cadaverine.

In fact, in comparative organoleptic tests between expert consumers and professional tasters, it has been shown that the descriptors used and freely chosen to define the defects found in wines are similar and concordant to those used by a professional taster, although with less acuity. sensory and with less frequency of detection.

Regular wine consumers, when they are subjected to a tasting discipline, concentrating on the perceived olfactory sensations, can discriminate and distinguish between correct wines and defective wines due to the presence of the added compounds, finding inappropriate aromas caused by microbial problems that they can increase the presence of volatile biogenic amines.

These organoleptic defects can be avoided by controlling the malolactic fermentation of the wine. This control can be carried out by inoculating a selected bacterium that avoids the presence of contaminants and maintaining adequate hygienic-sanitary conditions in the winery during the production and conservation of the wine.

Formation of amines in wines

The synthesis of biogenic amines involves the coincidence of three different factors: the existence of precursors (amino acids); the presence of lactic bacteria with the corresponding decarboxylase activity; and the concurrence of suitable environmental conditions.

The existence of amino acids is qualitatively and quantitatively linked to raw materials and winemaking technology. To begin with, it logically depends on the initial concentration in the must and is a function of the grape variety, the time of harvest, the ripeness of the grape, among other production factors. A second origin can be in the addition of nutrients in the form of amino acids or inorganic nitrogen used by yeasts for their production. The maceration of the must with skin and grape seed allows the transfer of more nitrogen compounds to the liquid fraction, both more the longer and more intense the maceration. This transfer increases at the time of pressing. The addition of pectinases and proteases also increases the concentration of amino acids.

When there is lysis of microorganisms, especially yeast, there is a release of proteins, peptides, and amino acids, both more important and intense is the lysis. Finally, aging on lees ends up rounding out the scenario of the situations that originate in the presence of free amino acids in the wine.

The second factor mentioned at the beginning is the presence of microorganisms with adequate decarboxylase activities. The biggest contributors are lactic acid bacteria but differently. Regarding histamine, Oenococcus ovni is the species with the highest percentage of strains that possess the hdc gene , encoding for histidine decarboxylase and catalyst for histamine synthesize (approximately 80% of strains). Fortunately, these strains tend to have low histidine decarboxylase activities and do not increase the amount of histamine in wine too much. They rarely produce more than 5 mg / L in wine.

In contrast, Pediococcus parvulus and Lactobacillus hilgardii (16 and 27% of histamine-producing strains, respectively) can produce between 40 and 50 mg / L in wine. Some lactobacilli, or even leuconostocs, can also produce intermediate amounts of histamine. About tyramine, we have a similar situation, except for no tyramine-producing O. UFO strains found. 78% of Lactobacillus brevis strains produce tyramine, and 25% of L. hilgardii. Furthermore, it has been seen that there is a correlation between the synthesis of tyramine and phenylethylamine, perhaps because the same enzyme catalyzes both activities.

As regards putrescine, this is the most abundant biogenic amine, but it has also been observed that there is a remarkable production by the vine, so that it can already be found in significant quantities in must. The microbial synthesis also occurs occasionally, but this is not as common.

Is wine good for health? Science clarifies the truth

Although the medical consensus does not recommend the consumption of any alcoholic beverage under any circumstances, there are scientific studies that show the health benefits of moderate consumption that some beverages can provide. This is the case of wine, for example, whose research on its effects on health has grown progressively over the last 20 years. Specifically, in 2019 a historical maximum was reached with more than 1,230 scientific articles published on wine and health.

Is Kratom legal to buy in Istanbul?

Kratom is the latest entrant into the list of recreational beverages that is slowly becoming popular in the different parts of the world. Although the origin of it is in South-East Asia itself, it is now routinely exported to the USA and UK and other countries as well. The main reason behind it’s rising popularity is the number of benefits that it has on the body. However, the question is whether it is legal to buy Kratom in Istanbul. This article tries to answer that.

Why Kratom?

Kratom is an herb derived from a plant known as the Mitrogyna speciosa. It is mainly available in the form of a grounded powder that can be consumed in the form of a drink. It is not a singular type of herb though. It is mainly of three types- the white, green, and red-veined ones. This mainly depends on the biggest vein that runs along the center of the leaves. The different types have more propensity for a particular type of action. Overall, Kratom can be used for the following purposes-

  • To deal with the chronic type of pain without being heavily reliant on opioids and narcotics for relief. These types of pain can be pretty incapacitating and can actually have an effect on your lifestyle as well. Kratom can help to counter that.
  • To gain the necessary boost in energy, especially when it wards off during the course of the fat. With age, it is common to start feeling tired without indulging in many physical activities. Kratom like kratom crazy white sumatra can help in this situation as well.
  • To deal with various issues related to mental health as it helps to fight against depression, anxiety, panic attacks, and other related conditions.
  • To concentrate better at work so that the outcome and productivity increases.
  • Maintenance of sexual prowess that tends to be reduced with age.

The legality of Kratom in Istanbul

Istanbul is a wonderful city located in Turkey which also forms the border between Asia and Europe. Although known for its grandiose and scenic beauty, Istanbul is also a hub for cross-country drug transport. This is one of the main reasons why drug laws are very strict here. Moreover, since Turkey is a Muslim country, they treat possession and intake of drugs as punishable offenses. To top all that, the kind of government that exists in Turkey has a total authoritarian approach and can impose things that it doesn’t deem to be fit from various angles.

However, the good news is that Kratom is not included in the list of banned items or drugs. One reason for this could be the fact that it is not so frequently available or abused. Thus, it has not come under the radar of the legal system. If you are a regular Kratom user and you know an agent who deals with the herb, you can legally buy it. This is based on the fact that it is not mentioned in the illegal list of items.

The verdict

You can buy Kratom in Istanbul but parading about it may not be advisable. Be very careful while doing so to make sure that you are avoiding trouble.

Do you need an Aerator for Wine?

As the must-have wine accessory of 2020, many people are asking if wine aerators actually work, or if they’re a passing fad.

 

The short answer: They work. Vineyards and sommeliers have been using wine aerating devices and gadgets at wine tastings since they arrived on the scene because they understand the basic science of wine aeration or decanting: to reach its ideal flavor and to meld the aromatic properties in a freshly opened bottle of wine, a wine needs to breathe.

Here comes Summer and time to fire up the grill! What wine do you choose?

I love to grill at home it’s easy, convenient and most of all, my wife likes the lack of clean up!!

I have almost perfected the rib eye, just working on the timing!  But anyway, it got me thinking about when I used to live in New England and wasn’t able to grill whenever the mood strikes.

Tips On Choosing a Wine Rack

If you love wine or merely enjoy a glass or two on occasion a great wine rack where you can store your collection regardless of the size. Not only are wine racks functional but nowadays a wine rack is considered a great option in home decor. In order to determine the wine rack that would best suit your home we will look over the various options.

6 Creative Wine Glass Decorating Ideas That Will Impress Your Friends

Imagine this little story. You have invited your friends for a surprise dinner this Friday, and you want this dinner to be specially memorable. You had to break the bank to buy the most expensive wine bottle available at your local winery, so you need to make sure everyone enjoys the wine you purchased.

Personalized Wine Glasses – The Many Misconceptions Cleared

Although there is a lot of stuff available on the subject of wine and wine glasses on the internet but a big part of this information is actually a bundle of misinformation. Many a times you are told things in which the truths and lies are mixed so expertly that you are forced to believe in them. While browsing on the internet you might come across a lot of misinformation about the personalized wine glasses as well. Sometimes it is nothing more than a fight between two schools of thoughts that have completely different perspectives about wine and wine glasses.

Buy Wine Online and get it Delivered Free!

Online wine stores have been cropping up at an increased pace these days. These stores offer the best available wine from the comfort of your home. Wouldn’t it be an added benefit to avail all this with an additional benefit of wine free delivery?

Buying Wines Online Made Easier through Wine Clubs in Australia!

Wine has become part of almost every household these days. More and more people today are exploring the diversity of wine thanks to the establishment of wine clubs Australia. Australian wine clubs are amongst the most respected and authentic clubs of the wine world. A bottle bearing the insignia of an Australian wine club is considered to be amongst the top quality wines of the world.

Buy Wine Online to Try New Varieties

Those that love wine frequently have different brands or types of wine that they will gravitate toward in restaurants or when they are shopping for bottles to enjoy at home. Those that are not particularly familiar with wine may rely on certain types of wine that they have tried previously but might wish that they knew different varieties to try which might suit their tastes more appropriately. When you buy wine online you can often find wine deals on new varieties which could provide the perfect excuse to branch out into new horizons in the wine tasting world.

Best Gifts for Men: Good, Cheap and Original

Soon comes the time to exchange Christmas gifts, so if you want to make a gift for an uncle, friend or some particular man, it would be best to know which is what he would like to receive as a gift from you , it’s time you know what would be the best gifts for men.

A Guide to Investing in Food and Beverages

There are many people looking to invest for the future. One of the areas of investment is food and beverages. This can involve buying the items and storing them over a number of years or taking out stocks in various companies. It has been popular for decades but it is important to be sensible and keep an eye on the market to make sure you make the most of this type of investment.

5 Tips on Buying Wine Online

Technology has been advancing on a day-to-day basis in the era we live in. Most people opt for online shopping as it saves both time and money. Like all products in the market, we have wines as well. The best wines come from age-old wineries where wine making has been passing generation after generation.

International Tempranillo Day

In 2011, TAPAS organized the first annual International Tempranillo Day: A celebration of the Tempranillo grape with all its regional synonyms. We encouraged everyone to open a bottle of Tempranillo, enjoy the fun, and share their experiences online with the hashtag #TempranilloDay or #Tempranillo.

Tempranillo, indigenous to Spain and used in the great Rioja and Ribera del Duero wines, is planted in 500,000 acres of the world’s vineyards, making it the fourth most planted wine grape, and that would be enough to celebrate.

Until recently, this noble grape’s entire acreage was almost all grown in Spain. Perhaps others were confused by the 60 or more regional synonyms for Tempranillo, which in itself may be a record worth celebrating.

But things have changed: knowledge of this noble grape is rapidly spreading, creating excitement and a spirit of cooperation among adventurous vintners bringing this Old World variety to New World soils. Tempranillo today is grown in many more countries including the United States, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina, South Africa, Australia, France, Portugal, Turkey, Canada, China, Thailand, and more. And that’s why we established International Tempranillo Day.

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