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A Very Long Tradition of Making Excelente Wines

Wine | How it’s made?

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Marian H. Barber

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Peter T. Rodriguez

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Kenneth Richardson

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Society: types, functions, structure, and characteristics

By society, we understand a group of individuals (generally humans, although it can also refer to certain gregarious animals) that are governed by common regulations and forms of communication and cooperation, often referred to as “ culture ”.

The constitution of a company generally involves a significant number of individuals. Although there are no defined numerical margins in this regard. Instead, it is vital that they share defining characteristics in terms of culture, history, economics and share the same geographic territory; all these above consanguineous or genetic ties.

Human societies are the object of study of Sociology, which seeks to understand the laws of organization and regulation of societies.

Types of companies

The study of human societies allows their classification based on different criteria, such as:

Its historical evolution. That is its location in the history of mankind. They are divided into:

  • Ancient or pre-industrial societies. Those that took place before the Industrial Revolution. They are generally divided into 1) hunter-gatherers and 2) agricultural and livestock.
  • Industrial societies. Those after the human development of industrial technology.

Its degree of complexity. Determined by the level of interaction of its elements. They are divided into:

  • Simple or primitive. Whose organization is tribal or small, usually governed by a patriarch or matriarch for life, and in which the tasks of society are not very well distributed (there is little specialization).
  • Complex Societies with structured political and government systems, with significant margins of specialization in the distribution of tasks (high specialization) and marked social stratification.

Its dominant culture. Societies can often be classified on the basis of the strongest cultural presence, which tends to rule over other cultures, both politically, socially, and identically. Thus, we can speak of Islamic society, Catholic society, Western society, European society, American society, literate society, knowledge society, information society, etc.

The animal “society”

Although it is not exactly a classification, it tends to distinguish between human society, with all the diversities, variants, and complexities that characterize it (especially if we try to see it as a planetary whole), and “animal societies”, which is the name that we can give the very primary level of social and territorial organization that certain animals can achieve.

Need for norms in society

All societies require rules for their operation: laws and social codes that regulate the various aspects of life.

Some of these norms are coercive, imposed by society on its new members, transmitted from generation to generation; while others are rather optional, subjective, belonging to the private sphere and function rather as a mode of recognition between individuals, who by acting in a similar way recognize themselves as equals before society.

All members of a society agree to a greater or lesser extent to be governed by rules.

Stratification of companies

Societies present a greater or lesser degree of stratification, that is, of organized and hierarchical social layers or strata.

These can be distinguished from each other on the basis of various material, cultural or political conditions.

For example, in Indian society, there are social castes that are very far apart, with little permeability between one and another, while in Western capitalist societies there are social classes that are distinguished from each other by their wealth and material goods.

Society functions

The existence of a company is considered to fulfill the following functions:

  • Make up a territory. There are no nations, countries, or territories if they are not inhabited by some specific society that defines them, names them, and establishes them as the home of their culture.
  • Allow relationships. Since society operates on the basis of commonly agreed norms. Its existence establishes a social pact that orders life and allows relationships between its individuals. In terms other than those of the vital competition of the wild.
  • Build an imaginary. The members of a society usually share a more or less broad way of seeing things and thinking about the world. This is what is called culture or, also, an imaginary, since it is a way of imagining the world. Without it, social identities could not exist.
  • It proposes a political model. Without a political model of governance and hierarchy, societies would be chaotic. For this reason, there are political theories and organisms in the different possible political regimes that allow the exercise of politics.
  • It meets the needs of its population. In principle, and in one way or another, each society will tend to fulfill the desires and needs of its population, whether materially and economically or socially and spiritually, and through methods accepted or condemned by itself.

Elements of society

We can speak of two types of constituent elements of society:

Materials. Those physical and concrete, such as a delimited territory (physical space) and a number of members (population).

Immaterial. Those of an imaginary, cultural, spiritual, or social nature. Such as an own language, a series of moral and spiritual values, a national identity, etc.

Structure of the companies

The structure of a society is the mode of operation of its various parts, that is, its architecture.

There the social strata or population groups take place, the various social institutions (public or private), the bodies of laws, the organizations of socialization, repression, and legislation (such as the courts, prisons, security forces, the military, the universities, and schools, etc.).

Each stratum and each institution, in accordance with the adopted model of society, will have a specific series of functions to fulfill.

For example, in a theocratic society the dominant church will also have political power, while in a secular society, there will be institutions alien to religion.

Origin of the companies

The societies that make up human civilization are as old as the human being himself. So there is no specific creation date.

It is estimated that ancient societies, prior to the invention of writing. Were tribal-type societies that gradually grew in number and complexity.

Evolution of societies

It is possible that particularly revolutionary events in the history of man can give rise to the birth of a new society, such as great technological developments, sudden changes in the social or political order (revolutions), or mixing and syncretism between different cultures (as in the case of Latin America ).

New partnerships

The future of human societies is a source of continuous speculation. However, traits such as diversity, multiple identities, and technological dependence seem to be central factors in the so-called “new societies”. Such as the global or virtual society.

 

The Ultimate Guide To Wine

The classification of the types of wine is one of the aspects that offer the greatest divergences when it comes to knowing the world of wine, and that ultimately only confuse the consumer, who does not go beyond red, white, rosé, and sparkling.

The origin of these confusions usually lies in the different classification sources, according to legislative and technical criteria. especially when it comes to special wines.

Currently, when buying wine, any consumer can choose from an impressive range of wines almost anywhere on the planet, faced with the consumer-facing problem of choice, in which labels often do not help much as they contain little descriptions. relatives.

The knowledge of the different classifications of types of wine can also facilitate this process of choice since it will allow us to group the wines into a few categories, which will be the first basic selection variable, namely: do I buy a red or a white? dry or sweet wine? sparkling or still?

Indeed, there are different ways of classifying wines, with the advice of Tapasociety, experts in wine distribution and sale, we will see below the four main groups:

  1. White wines.

Light and dry. Young and acidic wines, without body, rarely aged in oak barrels, are not usually suitable for aging.

Dry and spacious. They have more body and can age in many cases in barrel or bottle. Although they are technically dry, they can have a certain sweetness.

Dry and concentrated. More complex and with more body, they improve if they are aged in barrels and bottles, this group includes the best non-special white wines.

Aromatics. They are those from certain varieties that stand out for their aromas, being dry or semi-dry.

Semi-dry. Without being sweet, they are bottled before all the sugar has been transformed into alcohol.

Sweets and liquor. Intensely concentrated, full-bodied, and complex.

  1. Red and rosé wines.

Roses. Young wines rarely age well and are basically distinguished by their greater or lesser sweetness. Only if we look at the production process we could distinguish between roses and clarets.

Light, fruity, not aged. Almost all reds have a dry taste, but there are many differences between them, based on their density and astringency. This first group is identified with young wines. Usually, with little body, light, and low tannin, that is to say, little astringent.

Medium-bodied. The largest category of reds. It contains a large number of medium-quality wines and some of the great quality that can even be stored.

Concentrated, intense. It groups together tannic wines, with intense aromas, generally very fruity and that tend to age well.

Guarding. They are usually wines from classic regions or from the best vintages from lesser-known regions that have been aged in the bottle. They have a high density and body and their flavor improves with time, before declining.

Specials. They are the ones who break the aforementioned rule in the sense that reds are dry. They are not frequent and can be liquorous, sweet (there are more and more), etc.

  1. Sparkling wines.

Light fruity. There are many differences between sparkling wines in terms of quality and style. It is the model of the Spanish Cava and the Italian Prosseco.

Fine, intense. It is the model of French Champagne that is generally very attractive to the public.

Light and aromatic. Less known and very sweet, like the Italian muscat.

  1. Sweet and special wines.

Generous. They have in common the addition of alcohol, which is called header and aging in wood, which gives them a strong, dense, complex character. Good examples in Spain would be the wine called Manzanilla or the Fino de Jerez.

Partial fermentation. In these wines, rare in Spain and whose clearest example is Port, an incomplete fermentation is carried out, but the degree is increased with the subsequent addition of wine alcohol.

Mistelas. Although they are called wine, in reality, they are not, because fermentation is not carried out, but they are a mixture of the must with alcohol. The advantage of this method is that it respects the fruit (primary) characters to the maximum, and can even age. The best-known example is muscat, so when it comes to sweet muscat wines, they are almost always missiles.

Late harvest. They are sweet because the harvest is delayed as much as possible so that the grape has a high concentration of sugar due to overripeness so that it cannot ferment completely and therefore, the wine retains part of the sugar.

Raisined and toasted. The group includes, for example, the famous Pedro Ximénez. After the harvest, the grapes are dehydrated (in the sun or in very dry and hot spaces, depending on whether we are talking about raisins or toasted respectively), until the loss of water increases the concentration of sugar (raisins) making fermentation very difficult. , so that they require the addition of wine alcohol. Other similar examples, but that receive different names, are the French Muscats or the Italian Liquors.

Sugar, color, and quality

In order to better understand the previous groups, it is essential to understand three aspects of wine classification:

Sugar. Depending on the amount of sugar, they are classified into wines with practically no sugar called ‘dry’ (less than 5 g of sugar per liter); and sweeter wines as they contain more sugar, ordered from least to greatest sweetness in doomed, semi-dry, and sweet (ranging from 5 to 100 g of sugar per liter, or even more).

Color. According to their production method and color, they are classified in the perhaps most popular way among white grape whites (blanc de Blancs) or red grape whites (blanc de noirs), rosés (red grape partially fermented in contact with the skin) clarets (a mixture of white and red grapes fermented completely in contact with the skin) or reds (red grapes).

Quality. According to their quality and gastronomic application, one can speak of ‘table wines’ (ordinary), fine (made looking for a minimum of quality), and special, which are defined by having special composition or production characteristics.

Best wines in the world

It is very difficult to talk about which wine, or which wines, in the plural, are the best wines in the world. Whose mouth? In each country, there are more or less reputable wine guides that provide information about their evaluations of different vintages, varieties, brands, and denominations.

If you are looking for information about the best wines of antiquity (Egyptian and Roman times) we recommend our section dedicated to those wines.

Wine critics opinion

There are journalists who even have an international projection, such as Robert Parker or Jancis Robinson, and whose comments and wine tastings are followed with great attention by a good number of amateurs, and a greater number of professionals in the sector (whether they are sommeliers or managers of wineries. and distribution in different links of the chain). A high score from one of these “gurus” can make the demand for a wine grow considerably, hence their opinion is sometimes so strong that they can even influence the design of the winemaking. Which is, therefore, the best wine? Difficult question, surely, impossible to answer as such.

The influence of price and fashion

However, we will not stop at this, and we will at least try to provide some keys to respond to the curiosity that so much arouses the idea of which are the best wines in the world… and because. It is clear that there are better wines than others. For this to be so, many factors must be combined: the terroir gives a special peculiarity to some wines, the age of the vine also, the viticulture work undoubtedly helps to have a healthier and higher quality fruit. The work of the winemaker is equally fundamental. Once the product is available to the public, it must go to the street with a price. Price should normally be a measure of the quality of a product: if producing better costs more, more expensively priced wine should be better. A lot can be argued about it, but there is no doubt that a wine with a very high price is, logically, a wine where the scarcity of demand and the high supply makes its price very high. High demand does not mean that the wine is magnificent, they can play items of prestige, fashion, etc., and not only of quality.

Wine auctions

We cannot say which are the best wines in the world, but we can at least approximate the idea of ​​which wines are the most expensive. These wines that we are going to comment on are likely to be among the best wines in the world (there are undoubtedly and fortunately, many more of those on this list). The problem with these wines? Surely we can never get to know if they are that good since their price is, say, unattainable. We show a series of wines that fetched sky-high prices at auctions. These are exceptional cases, of highly prestigious brands that surely produce some of the best wines in the world.

Chateau Lafite 1787

It is a bottle that fetched a crazy price of $ 160,000 at Christie’s in London in 1985. The wine was purchased for the Forbes collection. The bottle bears Thomas Jefferson’s initials etched into the glass. This is a Bordeaux wine, from the Medoc, Premier Cru classé in the classification that has governed the destinations of Bordeaux wine prices since it was established in 1855.

Chateau Mouton Rothschild 1945

Jeroboam. A wine of supposedly enormous quality, highly sought after by investors and wine lovers, which reached the price of $ 114,614 at Christie’s in 1997. Similar to the previous case, a Premier Cru Classé.

Chateau d Yquem 1784

Yquem is the most recognized and prestigious sweet wine brand in the world. The winery is located in the Sauternes area of ​​Bordeaux. This bottle, which also includes an engraving with Thomas Jefferson’s initials, reached It Sold at Christie’s in 1986 for a staggering $ 56,588.

Massandra sherry

Now it is the turn of sweet wine from the Massandra winery. Massandra is the name of a winery with enormous history. Located in Crimea (part of present-day Ukraine), it is a winery that bottled wine for the tsars, who would consume it while staying at their summer residence in the area (Sympheropol remains a top tourist destination for Ukrainians or Russians ) This winery stored elaboration wines in nearby wineries or imported wines. There is speculation about the bottles that may be under its walls. And its figure may be close to a million units. In local wines, they specialized in sweet, Jerez-style wines. With the dismantling of the former USSR, some of the wines stored there began to be auctioned. In 2001, a wine sold at Sotheby’s in London reached 43.

Domaine de la Romanée-Conti

In fifth place on this list is a French wine that is not, however, from Bordeaux. The Bordeaux region differs from Burgundy in many ways. The first is the grapes: if Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, or Sauvignon Blanc are used in Bordeaux, in Burgundy the chosen grapes are pinot noir for reds and Chardonnay for whites. Secondly, the size of the vineyards, which are much smaller in Burgundy. The bottles are also different, and each area has given its name to a type of bottle. Romanée-Conti is possibly the highest-priced brand in Burgundy. In 1996 at Sotheby’s 8 bottles of this property reached the “symbolic” price of 224,900 dollars.

Screaming Eagle 1994

Although French wines are the ones that usually reach the highest, there are wines from other sources that also reach very high prices at auctions. This is the case with the 1994 California Screaming Eagle wine. Which was sold at Christie’s in Los Angeles in 2000 at a price of 3,833 per bottle. A bottle from this winery, a 1992 Cabernet, fetched $ 500,000 at a charity auction. We hope the pairing of this wine was not a burger with potatoes!

Chateau Mouton Rothschild 1982

Another of Bordeaux’s greats, the price per bottle in an auction of 600 of its bottles (50 boxes of 12) from the 1982 vintage (considered a great year in Bordeaux) reached 420,000 dollars (700 per bottle).

But these are just a few short wine anecdotes that are undoubtedly excellent. There is an enormous quantity of wines of equally enormous quality. Making a list of them is endless work. The history of wine is marked by many big brand names. We mention some of the biggest names for Bordeaux and Burgundy.

Bordeaux

(In this case, all names are with Chateau in front): Haut-Brion, Latour, Margaux, Leoville-Barton, Palmer, Cos D´Estournel, Pichon-Lalande, Lynch-Bages, Talbot, Pape-Clement, Smith-Haut -Lafitte, Petrus, L’Evangile, Cheval Blanc, Ausone, Magdelaine.

Burgundy

We indicate the producers, not the specific brands of these. In reds: Domaine Leroy, Domaine de la Romanée Conti, Domaine Comte de Vogüé, Anne Gros, Ponsot, Armand Rousseau, Hubert Lignier, Joseph Roty, Louis Jadot, Michel Lafarge. In targets: Domaine Ramonet, Coche Dury, Etienne Sauzet, Louis Carillon, Verget, Louis Latour, Colin Deleger, Jean Noel Gagnard.

10 benefits of red wine for health and heart

Studies found that moderate wine consumption, one or two glasses a day, has positive benefits for your body

Within alcoholic beverages, red wine stands out from other options for its rich content of antioxidants and polyphenols, such as resveratrol, which, together with its low caloric intake, make it an option full of healthy properties. Here we tell you which ones and what precautions you should take into account:

10 benefits of red wine for health

  1. Take care of your teeth

Different investigations highlight that polyphenols, natural antioxidants found in red wine, could slow down the growth of the bacterial flora that is housed in the teeth and gums, and, therefore, contribute to taking care of dental health.

  1. Protect memory

According to scientific evidence, resveratrol, a polyphenol present in red wine, would improve people’s memory. The researchers found that adults who took supplements with this compound showed increased brain connections in the area that involves memory. They were also able to recall more words and their mood improved.

  1. Anticancer

Again, the resveratrol found in red wine would be responsible for benefits for the body. In this case, we found that recent studies linked it to important antioxidant action, capable of fighting cancer by hindering the proliferation of tumor cells.

  1. Protect your eyesight

The antioxidants found in red wine and grapes could inhibit the growth of new blood vessels. Associated with eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Fight hypertension

It is believed that the incorporation of red wine is balanced and healthy diets, such as the Mediterranean or DASH, would allow keeping blood pressure levels under control. In addition, there is research that found that a component of this drink, provincial, could alleviate hypertension deficient in nitric oxide synthase.

  1. Protect the heart

Studies have shown that adults who drink small or moderate amounts of some alcoholic beverages, such as white wine, red wine, and beer, are less likely to have heart disease than those who do not drink at all, or who are heavy drinkers.

  1. Lower cholesterol

Red wine could inhibit the synthesis of endothelin-1, a protein responsible for the accumulation of fats, cholesterol, and other substances along the arterial walls. This situation leads to atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. It is also linked to red wine with anti-inflammatory properties.

  1. Anticoagulant

Red wine is believed to have blood-thinning properties, even more, effective than aspirin, ideal for preventing a heart attack. This is due to the fact that it has phenols that would prevent platelet aggregation. Reducing the risk of thrombosis, that is, the formation of a clot inside a blood vessel.

  1. Against sunburn

Many of the flavonoids in grapes and red wine would protect the skin from damage caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, specialists need to conduct more studies to corroborate the mechanism behind this association.

Other benefits

Although the scientific evidence is insufficient, the consumption of red wine was linked to the prevention or reduction of the damage caused by oxidative stress at the onset of diabetes, protection of bone health, decreased risk of kidney stones, relief of reactions allergic or increased resistance to allergens, and diuretic action.

10 myths about wine: true or false?

That the world of wine is mythical, fascinating, and has an aura of elegance is undeniable. Once we delve into this fascinating topic (always in moderation), we want to find out more about climates, soils, varieties, and dive into the wonderful terroir, from which exciting Bacchic liquids emanate, which touch our hearts.

However, beyond the dazzling that the noblest drink of all always gives us, there are countless myths, doubts, and intrigues that, for many palates, are still unsolved.

Next, we will mark with a V, true, or an F, false, ten points linked to the wine planet, which will clear doubts to unsuspecting palates.

Screwcap wines are of poor quality (False)

It is very common to hear, in any wine tasting or encounter, that the screw-on labels are “berettas”. There is nothing more false than that. Not even a three peso coin is as fictitious as this wrong statement.

Wines with this closure are ideal to drink during the harvest year or in the immediately preceding vintage. This stopper is perfect for those exponents that will be drunk soon, fresh, fruity, agile, and without going through barrels.

In general, the Rosca covers young white and rosé wines, aromatically very expressive, with enveloping acidity and “dangerous” when drinking, as they are light and pleasant on the palate.

Also, in the last decade, this closure applied to different reds without aging and that is “pure fruit.” As in the previous mentions, the thread is practical in these styles of wines, it favors the preservation of aromas and represents a lower cost for wineries.

We just have to get our prejudices out of our heads and accept this closure as a valid and appropriate alternative for wines that are easy to drink, without complexities or potential for prolonged aging.

The wine is made with any fruit and essences are added (False)

Many times, we will hear that a wine smells of grapefruit, passion fruit, butter, white rose, purple, cherry, strawberry, vanilla, or coconut. This does not mean that any of the aforementioned products are dosed.

The olfactory association has to do with the so-called Aromas of wine. The primaries are typical of the grape and its terroir. In other words, genetically, for example, a Malbec smells like plum and a Cabernet Sauvignon smells like fresh green pepper.

The secondary aromas emerge from the fermentation process and give lactic or buttery notes. Sensations associated with yogurt, milk, and butter are present in the nose.

On the other hand, the tertiary notes come from aging in barrels. Chocolate, dulce de leche, smoke, coffee, coconut, and vanilla are just some of the aromatic profiles of the wines that have been aged in the wood.

“The older the better” (False)

This statement has become, over the years, a great myth. All wine has a potential aging or tentative life curve, depending on its production process.

If a wine has been to drink fresh, in its full youth, it will not have a very long vine curve and, therefore, the longer we wait for it, the worse it will get. Agile white, rosé, and red wines that do not pass through barrels should be taken as soon as possible.

A good label means that you treasure a good wine (False)

This is like when we like a person. The fact that she is physically beautiful does not guarantee that we will like or move her personality.

In wine matters, a very well designed label does not endorse the inner liquid. Logically, a colorful, eye-catching and very innovative design will invite us to buy the bottle. On the contrary, a label with a design that is lost or that does not tell us anything, can, in a first impression, move us away from the bottle.

It is proven that very good wines, due to a discreet and visually unattractive label, have sold less than a medium-quality wine, but that marketing has been known to sell very well. To think and reflect.

A heavier and more imposing bottle houses more expensive wines (True)

For marketing, prestige, or simply a differentiating issue from other wine lines, the emblematic or iconic labels of the wineries come in denser bottles with a greater presence.

This does not mean, however, that we have to like it more than an inexpensive wine, presented in a simpler and lighter bottle. It is important to always be guided by what our palate dictates and not by conditioning impositions.

Rosé wines are feminine (False)

Tremendous fallacy. Rosés, in tune with the growing trend for light, fresh and fruity products, are always a great wild card. Versatile when it comes to pairing, they adapt to a myriad of gastronomic elaborations. From minced fish, chicken, and even low-fat red meats, they are an ideal alternative to enjoy in good company.

Likewise, we have never understood the reason for the female categorization, with overtones of contempt. Rosé wine is for all palates who want to experience a fresh, fruity glass with enveloping acidity.

The wine is taken at room temperature (False)

Each type of wine is drunk at a certain temperature. Generally speaking, light whites are appropriately enjoyed between 8 and 10 degrees, while bulky whites are between 10 and 12 degrees. Light reds, between 12 and 14 degrees, and medium-bodied reds, between 14 and 16 degrees. For its part, full-bodied reds are tasted at a temperature between 16 and 18 degrees.

It is essential to respect these thermal ranges, in order to enjoy each wine wisely. Bouns track: the sparkling should be taken between 5 and 7 degrees.

The white wines go only with fish and the red ones with red meat (False)

There are white exponents, for example, based on Chardonnay, aged or fermented in oak barrels that can combine wonderfully with achuras, cuts of pork, grilled chicken, and even a cut of lean red meat. Depending on the type of elaboration and the style of white wine in mind, the options when it comes to the enogastronomic combination are multiple

A classic example, by contrast, that is worth mentioning, is the Torrontés tandem with spicy Salta empanadas. Take a pencil and paper, this is how you make this superb assembly.

As for red wines, noble and delicate varieties such as Pinot Noir go wonderfully with fatty fish, such as pacú, trout or salmon.

Likewise, a delicate Merlot or Malbec without going through barrels can go wonderfully with some white meat. Once again, we must get rid of the myths that we inherit from generation to generation.

White wine gives me a headache (False)

Exception: this statement is false in our times. Before, it has been true. To compensate for the lack of tannins, which allow us greater durability in red wine, the white ones were added to excess sulphites. Thus was born the myth (once reality) of white that gives us more than one headache.

Over time, the whites have evolved and are, without a doubt, on a par with the reds. Today, the headache of the whites will be the consequence of having had a few too many drinks.

Canned wine is a modern and very valid alternative (True)

Let’s definitely lose the fear of alternative formats. The can, the bag in box and even the aforementioned screw cap, offer us different options in the market for consumers who seek to enter the world of wine without solemnities or obsolete commandments.

Health! And until next time…

Does Wine Help with Anxiety and Stress Relief?

Resveratrol is a component present in red wine, could work in the control of anxiety and depression. Manu popular research tested the effects of this chemical component in a group of mice that were injected with corticosterone, a hormone that controls stress. When the mice were at the highest points of stress, they were given a high dose of resveratrol and their stress decreased markedly.

The presence of biogenic amines in wine

Biogenic amines induce physiological effects that can be moderately severe and manifest as an allergic condition

The presence of biogenic amines in fermented and cured foods is common. The physiological consequences can be counterproductive. The same occurs with organoleptic conditions, since an excess of these substances in foods with a high sensory profile, such as wine, can be altered.

We know about wine that is much more than watercolored with ethanol. We also know that the richer it is, the greater the volume of precursors it contains and, consequently, the greater the potential risk that it will present biogenic amines. Its presence, in addition to altering the organoleptic characteristics of wine and, by extension, of other products such as cured foods, can cause health problems.

Indeed, biogenic vasoactive amines induce physiological effects that can be moderately severe and manifest as an allergic condition: peripheral vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output, and respiration, increased blood glucose, and release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. Since biogenic amines that do not come from the diet, those generated in the body perform important functions in the nervous and vascular systems. Under normal conditions, the body has tools to eliminate them in case of accumulation, and when they have completed their specific function. And it does so through the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) that acts in different systems of the body.

In general, their presence in amounts greater than the recommended limits is a concern, since these molecules, in particular histamine, have been shown to cause headaches and other allergic symptoms, such as diarrhea, palpitations, rashes, and vomiting. Also, there are experimental indications that some biogenic amines such as cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, and tyramine can enhance the toxic effect of histamine. Therefore, we are facing a food safety problem that must be considered in all its aspects. And for this, you have to go to the root of the problem, to the origin of biogenic amines in fermented and cured foods, to know where to act to prevent or treat their presence.

Amines in wines

Today it is possible to know which and how many microorganisms are in wine quickly and reliably most red wines and some white wines undergo malolactic fermentation that catalyzes the conversion of malate to lactate. It is the biochemical degradation of one of the most abundant acids in wine by bacteria that transform it into lactic acid. This fermentation can occur spontaneously, but it is advisable to induce it, selecting the appropriate time and inoculum if you want to obtain a quality product.

In the case of amino acids (which appear in wine from must or pre-fermentation stages and in alcoholic fermentation), the bacterial action generates biogenic amines. The selection of the lactic strain is, therefore, an important criterion when it comes to preventing the formation of these amines. Others, such as the fermentation conditions or the winemaking processes, are also decisive.

However, to act against their training, it is useful to pay attention to a series of tips:

  • Avoid yeast inocula to facilitate malolactic fermentation, as they could be contaminated with bacteria that favor their appearance.
  • Carry out the malolactic fermentation with the species of lactic bacteria Leuconostoc oenos; only thus is its absence assured.
  • Sulfite directly after malolactic fermentation, thus preventing bacterial activity.
  • Barrel aging presents a certain risk in this regard.
  • Maintain impeccable hygienic conditions in the cellar to exclude undesirable microorganisms.

Organoleptic influence

A well-informed consumer about possible fermentation problems in winemaking is capable of detecting organoleptic defects present in wine, associated with certain chemical compounds caused by uncontrolled malolactic fermentation, such as putrescine and cadaverine.

In fact, in comparative organoleptic tests between expert consumers and professional tasters, it has been shown that the descriptors used and freely chosen to define the defects found in wines are similar and concordant to those used by a professional taster, although with less acuity. sensory and with less frequency of detection.

Regular wine consumers, when they are subjected to a tasting discipline, concentrating on the perceived olfactory sensations, can discriminate and distinguish between correct wines and defective wines due to the presence of the added compounds, finding inappropriate aromas caused by microbial problems that they can increase the presence of volatile biogenic amines.

These organoleptic defects can be avoided by controlling the malolactic fermentation of the wine. This control can be carried out by inoculating a selected bacterium that avoids the presence of contaminants and maintaining adequate hygienic-sanitary conditions in the winery during the production and conservation of the wine.

Formation of amines in wines

The synthesis of biogenic amines involves the coincidence of three different factors: the existence of precursors (amino acids); the presence of lactic bacteria with the corresponding decarboxylase activity; and the concurrence of suitable environmental conditions.

The existence of amino acids is qualitatively and quantitatively linked to raw materials and winemaking technology. To begin with, it logically depends on the initial concentration in the must and is a function of the grape variety, the time of harvest, the ripeness of the grape, among other production factors. A second origin can be in the addition of nutrients in the form of amino acids or inorganic nitrogen used by yeasts for their production. The maceration of the must with skin and grape seed allows the transfer of more nitrogen compounds to the liquid fraction, both more the longer and more intense the maceration. This transfer increases at the time of pressing. The addition of pectinases and proteases also increases the concentration of amino acids.

When there is lysis of microorganisms, especially yeast, there is a release of proteins, peptides, and amino acids, both more important and intense is the lysis. Finally, aging on lees ends up rounding out the scenario of the situations that originate in the presence of free amino acids in the wine.

The second factor mentioned at the beginning is the presence of microorganisms with adequate decarboxylase activities. The biggest contributors are lactic acid bacteria but differently. Regarding histamine, Oenococcus ovni is the species with the highest percentage of strains that possess the hdc gene , encoding for histidine decarboxylase and catalyst for histamine synthesize (approximately 80% of strains). Fortunately, these strains tend to have low histidine decarboxylase activities and do not increase the amount of histamine in wine too much. They rarely produce more than 5 mg / L in wine.

In contrast, Pediococcus parvulus and Lactobacillus hilgardii (16 and 27% of histamine-producing strains, respectively) can produce between 40 and 50 mg / L in wine. Some lactobacilli, or even leuconostocs, can also produce intermediate amounts of histamine. About tyramine, we have a similar situation, except for no tyramine-producing O. UFO strains found. 78% of Lactobacillus brevis strains produce tyramine, and 25% of L. hilgardii. Furthermore, it has been seen that there is a correlation between the synthesis of tyramine and phenylethylamine, perhaps because the same enzyme catalyzes both activities.

As regards putrescine, this is the most abundant biogenic amine, but it has also been observed that there is a remarkable production by the vine, so that it can already be found in significant quantities in must. The microbial synthesis also occurs occasionally, but this is not as common.

Is wine good for health? Science clarifies the truth

Although the medical consensus does not recommend the consumption of any alcoholic beverage under any circumstances, there are scientific studies that show the health benefits of moderate consumption that some beverages can provide. This is the case of wine, for example, whose research on its effects on health has grown progressively over the last 20 years. Specifically, in 2019 a historical maximum was reached with more than 1,230 scientific articles published on wine and health.

Is Kratom legal to buy in Istanbul?

Kratom is the latest entrant into the list of recreational beverages that is slowly becoming popular in the different parts of the world. Although the origin of it is in South-East Asia itself, it is now routinely exported to the USA and UK and other countries as well. The main reason behind it’s rising popularity is the number of benefits that it has on the body. However, the question is whether it is legal to buy Kratom in Istanbul. This article tries to answer that.

Why Kratom?

Kratom is an herb derived from a plant known as the Mitrogyna speciosa. It is mainly available in the form of a grounded powder that can be consumed in the form of a drink. It is not a singular type of herb though. It is mainly of three types- the white, green, and red-veined ones. This mainly depends on the biggest vein that runs along the center of the leaves. The different types have more propensity for a particular type of action. Overall, Kratom can be used for the following purposes-

  • To deal with the chronic type of pain without being heavily reliant on opioids and narcotics for relief. These types of pain can be pretty incapacitating and can actually have an effect on your lifestyle as well. Kratom can help to counter that.
  • To gain the necessary boost in energy, especially when it wards off during the course of the fat. With age, it is common to start feeling tired without indulging in many physical activities. Kratom like kratom crazy white sumatra can help in this situation as well.
  • To deal with various issues related to mental health as it helps to fight against depression, anxiety, panic attacks, and other related conditions.
  • To concentrate better at work so that the outcome and productivity increases.
  • Maintenance of sexual prowess that tends to be reduced with age.

The legality of Kratom in Istanbul

Istanbul is a wonderful city located in Turkey which also forms the border between Asia and Europe. Although known for its grandiose and scenic beauty, Istanbul is also a hub for cross-country drug transport. This is one of the main reasons why drug laws are very strict here. Moreover, since Turkey is a Muslim country, they treat possession and intake of drugs as punishable offenses. To top all that, the kind of government that exists in Turkey has a total authoritarian approach and can impose things that it doesn’t deem to be fit from various angles.

However, the good news is that Kratom is not included in the list of banned items or drugs. One reason for this could be the fact that it is not so frequently available or abused. Thus, it has not come under the radar of the legal system. If you are a regular Kratom user and you know an agent who deals with the herb, you can legally buy it. This is based on the fact that it is not mentioned in the illegal list of items.

The verdict

You can buy Kratom in Istanbul but parading about it may not be advisable. Be very careful while doing so to make sure that you are avoiding trouble.

Do you need an Aerator for Wine?

As the must-have wine accessory of 2020, many people are asking if wine aerators actually work, or if they’re a passing fad.

 

The short answer: They work. Vineyards and sommeliers have been using wine aerating devices and gadgets at wine tastings since they arrived on the scene because they understand the basic science of wine aeration or decanting: to reach its ideal flavor and to meld the aromatic properties in a freshly opened bottle of wine, a wine needs to breathe.

Here comes Summer and time to fire up the grill! What wine do you choose?

I love to grill at home it’s easy, convenient and most of all, my wife likes the lack of clean up!!

I have almost perfected the rib eye, just working on the timing!  But anyway, it got me thinking about when I used to live in New England and wasn’t able to grill whenever the mood strikes.

Tips On Choosing a Wine Rack

If you love wine or merely enjoy a glass or two on occasion a great wine rack where you can store your collection regardless of the size. Not only are wine racks functional but nowadays a wine rack is considered a great option in home decor. In order to determine the wine rack that would best suit your home we will look over the various options.

6 Creative Wine Glass Decorating Ideas That Will Impress Your Friends

Imagine this little story. You have invited your friends for a surprise dinner this Friday, and you want this dinner to be specially memorable. You had to break the bank to buy the most expensive wine bottle available at your local winery, so you need to make sure everyone enjoys the wine you purchased.

Personalized Wine Glasses – The Many Misconceptions Cleared

Although there is a lot of stuff available on the subject of wine and wine glasses on the internet but a big part of this information is actually a bundle of misinformation. Many a times you are told things in which the truths and lies are mixed so expertly that you are forced to believe in them. While browsing on the internet you might come across a lot of misinformation about the personalized wine glasses as well. Sometimes it is nothing more than a fight between two schools of thoughts that have completely different perspectives about wine and wine glasses.

Buy Wine Online and get it Delivered Free!

Online wine stores have been cropping up at an increased pace these days. These stores offer the best available wine from the comfort of your home. Wouldn’t it be an added benefit to avail all this with an additional benefit of wine free delivery?

Buying Wines Online Made Easier through Wine Clubs in Australia!

Wine has become part of almost every household these days. More and more people today are exploring the diversity of wine thanks to the establishment of wine clubs Australia. Australian wine clubs are amongst the most respected and authentic clubs of the wine world. A bottle bearing the insignia of an Australian wine club is considered to be amongst the top quality wines of the world.

Buy Wine Online to Try New Varieties

Those that love wine frequently have different brands or types of wine that they will gravitate toward in restaurants or when they are shopping for bottles to enjoy at home. Those that are not particularly familiar with wine may rely on certain types of wine that they have tried previously but might wish that they knew different varieties to try which might suit their tastes more appropriately. When you buy wine online you can often find wine deals on new varieties which could provide the perfect excuse to branch out into new horizons in the wine tasting world.

Best Gifts for Men: Good, Cheap and Original

Soon comes the time to exchange Christmas gifts, so if you want to make a gift for an uncle, friend or some particular man, it would be best to know which is what he would like to receive as a gift from you , it’s time you know what would be the best gifts for men.

A Guide to Investing in Food and Beverages

There are many people looking to invest for the future. One of the areas of investment is food and beverages. This can involve buying the items and storing them over a number of years or taking out stocks in various companies. It has been popular for decades but it is important to be sensible and keep an eye on the market to make sure you make the most of this type of investment.

5 Tips on Buying Wine Online

Technology has been advancing on a day-to-day basis in the era we live in. Most people opt for online shopping as it saves both time and money. Like all products in the market, we have wines as well. The best wines come from age-old wineries where wine making has been passing generation after generation.

International Tempranillo Day

In 2011, TAPAS organized the first annual International Tempranillo Day: A celebration of the Tempranillo grape with all its regional synonyms. We encouraged everyone to open a bottle of Tempranillo, enjoy the fun, and share their experiences online with the hashtag #TempranilloDay or #Tempranillo.

Tempranillo, indigenous to Spain and used in the great Rioja and Ribera del Duero wines, is planted in 500,000 acres of the world’s vineyards, making it the fourth most planted wine grape, and that would be enough to celebrate.

Until recently, this noble grape’s entire acreage was almost all grown in Spain. Perhaps others were confused by the 60 or more regional synonyms for Tempranillo, which in itself may be a record worth celebrating.

But things have changed: knowledge of this noble grape is rapidly spreading, creating excitement and a spirit of cooperation among adventurous vintners bringing this Old World variety to New World soils. Tempranillo today is grown in many more countries including the United States, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina, South Africa, Australia, France, Portugal, Turkey, Canada, China, Thailand, and more. And that’s why we established International Tempranillo Day.

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