A Very Long Tradition of Making Excelente Wines

Wine | How it’s made?

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Marian H. Barber

wine expert

Peter T. Rodriguez

wine expert

Kenneth Richardson

wine expert


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The worst health risks of drinking alcohol

After the Christmas excesses, it is convenient to leave bad habits behind. Today we review the consequences to which you expose yourself if you do not stop drinking alcohol or alcoholic beverages.

After the Christmas period, there are many habits that need to be reversed. One of them, perhaps the most harmful, is drinking alcohol frequently. After all, Christmas celebrations between families and friends are usually extended with several drinks or beers too many, and that takes a heavy toll on the body. The most worrying thing is that its consumption goes from being merely casual or only within social environments to becoming chronic and persistent.

The harms of alcohol consumption

Alcohol consumption is considered a drug due to its potentially addictive effect, and excessive and prolonged intake can be harmful to health.

Alcohol. Short-term and long-term health effects

It was World Day without Alcohol, the most consumed and accepted legal drug in Spain. According to data from the latest state survey, 62% of the population between 15 and 64 years old has consumed alcohol in the last 30 days, and 78% have done so in the last year. It is one of the main causes of illness and mortality and is related to more than 200 diseases. We explain how alcohol consumption affects your health.

Prevent alcoholism (addiction prevention): fundamental tips

Addiction prevention is an absolutely fascinating field. For thousands of years, we have accepted the consumption of alcohol, drugs, or gambling as part of normality. However, we live unaware of the risk involved, for example, drinking alcohol. Avoiding the harmful consequences of these habits have given rise to a science called preventology, preventative medicine, or prevention. Today we know for sure that the repeated use of alcohol causes a disease called alcoholism in some people. Preventing alcoholism consists of trying to avoid the harmful and pathological effects that chronic alcohol use entails.

Genetic Predisposition Of Alcoholism

Avoid alcoholism

What at first seems simple really is not. Preventing alcoholism means designing a healthy lifestyle outside of alcohol. Or also promote a series of actions aimed at avoiding dependency. Alcohol addiction is a disease whose biochemical mechanisms are still under investigation. Although it is difficult to believe, the scientific community does not know exactly the molecular changes that occur in the nervous system when we drink alcohol. This is why preventing alcohol addiction is somewhat impossible to guarantee. What we do know are factors that determine the appearance of addictions.

We know that there are people who are more vulnerable than others to the effects of alcohol, drugs, or gambling. Genetics is one of the determining factors when expressing alcoholism. Two people drinking in the same way during the same period of time can suffer different consequences. That is, the same amount of alcohol can cause alcoholism in some people and not in others. The genome determines the genetic predisposition to suffer from alcoholism. Unfortunately, we do not have sufficiently advanced technology to accurately identify the genes that determine the expression of alcoholism. Today vulnerability to the effects of alcohol and drugs is not exactly predictable.

How To Prevent Alcoholism

In the development of any addiction, such as alcoholism, genetics clearly intervenes. This is a factor on which we cannot intervene. You may be predisposed to cancer, asthma, or alcohol addiction. Your genes say so and that factor is invariable. However, there are other factors, such as psychological traits or the environment, that also influence the development of addictions. This means that how we drink, why, and how we use alcohol also determine the onset of alcoholism.

Indeed, these are the fields in which prevention intervenes. In a very brief way, we can say that alcohol appears in our lives hiding a trap that no one is prepared to avoid. Alcohol is the socializing agent par excellence. It changes our mood, it is euphoric, anxiolytic, and pleasant in moderate doses. For these reasons, it is usual to repeat its consumption. Not having adequate psychological or emotional coping skills can predispose us to suffer from alcoholism.

On the other hand, if alcohol consumption is normalized in our daily environment, it is more likely that we will end up incorporating alcohol as part of our way of life. Alcohol to celebrate, alcohol to escape or alcohol not to suffer. And naturally, alcohol to relax. Preventing alcoholism can be somewhat difficult under these conditions.

Alcohol is a very powerful, neurotoxic drug that is the only essential element for the development of alcoholism. In other words, the only infallible formula with 100% guarantees to prevent alcoholism is not to drink. It seems simple, but it is not. Bridging the gap: never smoking tobacco in your life dramatically reduces the chances of suffering from lung cancer.

Basic Tips To Prevent Alcoholism

We are going to mention in a general way some fundamental tips to prevent alcoholism. This is an indicative summary of general parameters. As an element to highlight, within the family, many parents are concerned about the alcohol consumption of their adolescent children. In Valencia, the average age of starting alcohol consumption is 14 years. Possibly the most relevant factor to prevent alcoholism in adolescents, in the opinion of the Ivatad alcoholism detoxification center, is to establish effective communication with them. Take an interest in their problems and be close. Also in a respectful and effective way, let them know that we are interested in their difficulties and conflicts, their tastes and hobbies. Ultimately, try to establish effective and effective communication with people. This is the best way to prevent alcoholism. Some fundamental tips to avoid alcoholism are:

  • The healthiest option is not to drink alcohol. If you drink, don’t do it alone
  • The lower the age of onset, the greater the probability of suffering from alcoholism. The adolescent brain is more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol than that of adults
  • Drink in moderation or consume non-alcoholic mocktails
  • Do not frequently excessively leisure spaces such as bars, restaurants, and nightclubs
  • Alcohol as a way of socializing: learning to relate without alcoholic beverages
  • Develop healthy habits: playing sports can help prevent alcoholism
  • Social skills strategies – for example, learning to tolerate frustration or overcome difficulties
  • Stress management: alcohol appears as a restorative balm for excessive stress. We must learn to manage stress in a healthy way and not with alcohol.
  • Peer pressure: learning to say no. Being able to integrate without drinking in circles where the majority consume alcohol can help you prevent alcoholism

You may like to read Information on the risks of alcohol consumption

Information on the risks of alcohol consumption

There is no safe level of alcohol consumption. Risk consumption, harmful consumption, episodic excessive consumption. And alcohol dependence is nowadays considered a major public health problem and its causes come together with multiple circumstances and determinants.

Harmful use of alcohol is estimated to cause 3.3 million deaths each year, a significant proportion of which are among young people.

According to a study carried out by the Ministry of Health, from 2010-to 2017, there were 15,489 deaths per year attributable to alcohol in Spain, representing 55.7% of premature deaths.

  • The consumption of alcoholic beverages ranks third among the main risk factors for poor health in the world.
  • It can create addiction and problems in our physical, mental, and social health.
  • There is no safe level of alcohol consumption
  • Not consuming is the only thing that avoids its harmful effects
  • Based on current scientific evidence, no health professional or institution should recommend its consumption to improve health.

Causes That Converge In The Consumption Of Alcohol

Alcohol consumption is harmful

  • The personality
  • The social and family context of the person
  • The social and cultural environment
  • The daily presence of alcohol in interpersonal relationships
  • The accessibility and permissiveness that normalizes its consumption, which means that it is even no longer perceived as a drug.
  • Advertising, which always associates alcohol consumption with happiness
  • The employment situation

These determinants do not have the same importance and degree of influence in all people, varying according to each case.

Risks Of Alcohol Consumption

There is no safe consumption of alcohol. Its consumption always poses a health risk.

Alcohol is one of the leading preventable risk factors in the development of more than 200   health problems and injuries, including but not limited to:

  • Cardiovascular diseases,
  • liver diseases,
  • Neuropsychiatric diseases
  • Communicable diseases.
  • There is strong evidence of the association between alcohol consumption and certain types of cancer.

The impact of alcohol consumption goes beyond the health of the person who consumes it since it can cause harm to third parties and to society as a whole:

  • Traffic accidents,
  • violent behavior,
  • Unemployment, work absenteeism.
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)

If you or a family member has alcohol dependency problems, do not hesitate to ask for help at your Health Center. Also know that in the Community of Madrid there is also an important network of Mutual Aid Associations.

Better Without Alcohol

Coinciding with the start of the school year, the Department of Health of the Community of Madrid launches the “Better Without Alcohol” information campaign to raise awareness among adolescents/young people as well as the general population about the risks and harm associated with alcohol consumption. this drug through four videos.

mothers and fathers

This video is aimed at mothers and fathers, models and role models for their sons and daughters, and, therefore, preventive agents, so it is necessary for them to know the risks of alcohol consumption in adolescents.

General Population

This video is aimed at the general population to raise awareness that alcohol is also a drug and to increase the perception of risk regarding its consumption.

Adolescents 12 to 14 years old

“If you want to have fun if you want to have a good time, BETTER WITHOUT ALCOHOL” aimed at adolescents aged 12 to 14 so that they know that alcohol is also a drug and that its consumption poses health risks and thus increases the perception of risk about its consumption.

Adolescents 15 to 18 years old

If you start… do you know how you can finish? BETTER WITHOUT ALCOHOL” aimed at adolescents from 15 to 18 years old so that they know that alcohol is also a drug and that its consumption poses health risks and thus increases the perception of the risk of its consumption.

You may also be interested in What are the dangers (bad effects) of alcohol?

What are the dangers (bad effects) of alcohol?

Alcohol is a depressant substance of the central nervous system. In addition to having an effect on the brain and changing some of its functions (coordination, attention, memory…), its continued use also affects other organs such as the kidney, liver, or circulatory system. Initially, the effects of alcohol are subtle, but they can be dangerous because a person under its influence is not a good judge of their behavior.

The top ten benefits and properties of red wine

Throughout history, different civilizations have firmly believed in the properties of red wine: a series of characteristics that, apparently, make it a great ally for human health:

Antioxidant, anticancer, analgesic… Positive results to treat heart or cardiovascular diseases, to combat cholesterol… Its composition has even been related to the reduction of stress, anxiety, and mental health.

How to make the best homemade pizza in the world

With this special pizza that we bring you, you will never again have doubts about how to make homemade pizza. Learn the differences in the types of pizza, how each of the pizza doughs is made, the ingredients, and the secrets to getting the perfect pizza. You just have to choose your favorite and enjoy it.

Today we are going to dedicate a special to homemade Italian pizza because there is nothing in the world that we like more than a good homemade pizza at the end of the week.

And although today there are ready-made pizza doughs on the market, we love making them, because there is nothing better than a good homemade artisanal pizza, from the dough to the rest of the ingredients, which varies depending on family tastes.

We encourage you to follow this process with us because we are going to try to explain it to you as best as possible. Try to do it once and then you decide which is the best option.

How to make fluffy Neapolitan pizza

Homemade pizza recipe

Add the flour, dry yeast, water, and salt to a bowl, mixing all the ingredients. Knead gently for a few minutes, until the ingredients are incorporated and we get a ball that is homogeneous.

Put the ball in a well-oiled bowl and cover it with plastic wrap. Let it ferment at room temperature for 6 to 8 hours, during which it will triple its size.

After that time we sprinkle flour on the work table and divide the dough into two portions. Form two balls and place in two bowls also covered with plastic wrap.

Put in the fridge for a minimum of 24 hours. Remove the dough from the fridge and let it rest at room temperature, well covered, for two hours.

How To Make Pizza Dough

There are two basic types of Italian pizza dough: Neapolitan pizza dough (fluffier) ​​and Roman pizza dough (crunchier).

We have explained the Neapolitan pizza to you and now we are going to explain the second dough, more crispy, of the Roman pizza. Then all that remains is to decide on your favorite pizza recipe.

Roman Crusty Pizza Dough

Roman pizza is the other type of Italian pizza, also delicious. It was born in the post-war period in Rome, 200 years after the invention of the famous Neapolitan pizza.

This pizza has a crispy crust that often breaks when you bite into it.

  • The main difference with Neapolitan pizza is the dough since in this type of pizza less proportion of water is used per flour than in Naples (around 55% water). This results in less fluffy pizza dough.
  • Roman pizza is made with wheat flour, water, yeast, salt, and a little oil. The oil, which increases its crunchy texture, differentiates it from the Neapolitan, which does not have it.
  • The base of the Roman pizza is thinner and has practically no crust.
  • It bakes for about 3 minutes, so it’s drier and crispier than its rival Italian pizza. Even sometimes the edges are slightly burned.

Crunchy Roman Pizza Dough Recipe

Ingredients Roman Pizza Dough: 250 g of strong flour; 125 g of water; 2 g of pressed yeast; 7 g of salt; 10g olive oil

How to make Roman pizza:

  • We dissolve the yeast in 125 ml of warm water and mix well. Make a volcano with the flour in a bowl, and add the dissolved yeast in the center, mixing well. Add the oil and salt and continue mixing until everything is integrated.
  • With a wooden spoon or a spatula, integrate the flour with the yeast dissolved in water, mixing well. Once mixed, add the olive oil and salt.
  • Put the dough on a surface sprinkled with flour, and knead it with your hands for a few minutes until it does not stick to your hands and is elastic for about 10 minutes.
  • Place in a clean, floured bowl, cover it with a cotton cloth and let it rise at room temperature for 2 hours, during which it will double in volume.
  • After that time, preheat the oven to 240ºc for half an hour.
  • We separate the dough into the number of pizzas we want to make (we can prepare one large or two medium). We place it on a work surface dusted with flour and stretch it well with a rolling pin, starting from the center towards the sides and giving it the shape we want.

Homemade Carbonara Pizza Recipe

This carbonara pizza is a Bianca pizza, that is, it does not have tomato.

Ingredients: 1 homemade pizza dough;  100 g of mushrooms; 100 ml of cooking cream; 4 slices of bacon; Half an onion; Parmesan; Salt; Pepper.

Mozzarella Cheese For Pizza

The type of cheese for pizzas does not raise doubts, we all know that it is mozzarella cheese, but which of them is better? Purists say that the best is buffalo mozzarella cheese, and within this, the best is that of Campana, a region of Italy. But given its price and difficulty in finding it, mozzarella cheese will be great for your pizza.

You may also be interested in Special tips to cook the juiciest and delicious steak

Special tips to cook the juiciest and delicious steak

If you are a steak lover, this selection of infallible tips will help you become an expert on the grill and cook the most delicious steak.

One of the greatest qualities of roasting a cut of meat is how simple it is to prepare, just by having a pan or grill, oil, salt, and fire we obtain an exquisite main course. Despite this, on many occasions when cooking meat we make some mistakes, which are decisive in the final result, especially in the term and juiciness of the meat.

We present a selection of infallible tips so that the next time you cook meat you do it like an expert.

Tips for cooking tender and juicy cuts of meat:

juiciest and delicious steak

Meat temperature

This is one of the points that most influences the cooking of meat and it is very easy to comply with it: the meat should always be at room temperature. If the meat you are going to prepare was frozen, you must defrost it beforehand and correctly. Never cook frozen meat! The result will be fatal, when you cold roast the meat you will get a cut that is overcooked on the outside and raw on the inside.

The thickness of the meat does matter!

The thicker the cut of meat, the easier it will be to control the perfect doneness: golden on the outside, pink and juicy on the inside; Normally when cooking thin cuts of meat, it is very easy to cause overcooking. Try to select fresh, organic cuts of meat and investigate the most recommended variants, some good examples of cuts are:

  • T-bone steak: It receives this name because a “T” shaped bone separates the loin and the steak. It stands out for being meat with a great flavor, its texture is soft and it is a cut that has little fat.
  • Loin-Tenderloin: It is one of the most expensive variants of meat, but its flavor is truly unmatched. It is lean and tender, notable for being only 2 inches thick, and when prepared correctly is ideal for truly juicy meat. It is also known as tenderloin or tenderloin, seasonings such as fresh rosemary, peppercorns, and mustard are wonderful.
  • Rib Eye Steak: It is one of the finest cuts that exist, its meat is one of the softest because it comes from the fifth to the eleventh vertebra of the beef ribs. It is also one of the cuts with the highest fat content, this also influences its extraordinary flavor and texture.
  • Back Ribs: This cut is popularly known as “strip roast” and is obtained from the beef rib. It is one of the meatiest cuts, with the highest fat content, which is why it is the softest. It is ideal for cooking on the grill and is well marinated.
  • Skirt: Although we all know it as “arrachera” it is a cut that comes from the animal’s diaphragm and is one of the classics. It stands out for being quite accessible in price, for its delicious flavor and great versatility.

The unique touch of seasoning the meat well

Do not be afraid to season the meat well, it is a wonderful way to bring out its flavors in a natural way. Remember that in thick cuts of meat, the spices and seasonings you use will remain in the form of a crust and will not reach the center of the cut. The only aspect with which you should be especially careful is with the salt, try to add it at the end when the meat is already cooked, when raw it absorbs it much more.

The importance of the correct iron temperature

To make it golden on the outside and juicy on the inside, you should brush the pan with a little olive oil. Subsequently, heat the griddle very well (this step is essential), place the cut of meat, and wait to see blood on the upper part to turn it over. You only have to turn it in once!

The magic of thermometers

One of the best tips to ensure success in the correct cooking of meat is to use thermometers that will help you determine the correct term of the meat. Consider the following parameters:

  • Raw (not fully cooked, with red inside): 46 ºC
  • Sealed/Blue rare (very red and cold): 46-52 ºC
  • Medium raw (red inside, pink outer zone): 52-55 ºC
  • Medium (hot red inside, pink outside): 55-60ºC
  • Three quarters (mostly grey-brown, with hints of pink): 60-70ºC
  • Very Well Done or Four Quarters (mostly gray-brown, no pink spots): 160°F or higher.

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Homemade red wine recipes, the best of all

For wine lovers, red wine is one of the best options to accompany red meats. With a dark garnet color and an intense flavor, this exquisite drink is made with a must of red grapes. There is a great variety of recipes, with sweet or bitter touches, but all of them are made with the same dedication. If you are passionate about enology and enjoy wine as much as we do, we recommend that you take a look at the Master in Wine and Spirits Making.

Classification Of Red Wine

types of Red Wine

Depending on the aging time in the barrel and in the bottle, red wine is classified as follows.

  • Young or year: it has not spent enough time in the barrel to be considered aging.
  • Aging: it has spent between six and twelve months in the barrel and has rested in the bottle for at least three years before being marketed.
  • Reserve: it has spent at least one year in the barrel and, at least, four resting in the bottle.
  • Gran Reserva: it has spent at least two years in the barrel and three in the bottle, and can be marketed after the sixth year. It is the most difficult grade, and only exceptional harvests make it.

How To Make Homemade Red Wine

In case you doubted it, anyone can make their own wine. However, it is important that you know the process and that you choose quality raw materials. We present you with a simple guide with which you will have no problem making your own wine.

The first step is to choose quality raw materials. Find a nearby vineyard and choose the right grape. The varieties of red grapes that we can get are Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha, Merlot, Monastrell, Tempranillo, Bonarda or Sangiovesse. For a liter of red wine, two kilos of grapes are usually recommended.

Crushed Grapes

The next step is to extract the juice from the grape, called must. The grapes can be crushed with a small press, a grinder, or with the treading of the grape. The latter is one of the most used traditional methods for quality artisanal wine. The fresh must ferment quickly and has to be controlled, don’t forget it.


For it to ferment, the must be placed in jars, darts, or demijohns. During fermentation, the solids from the crush must be present. In the production of wine, they must ferment together with grape juice, skins, and seeds, among others. This is because, in this way, it obtains better color, aroma, and texture. The fermentation temperature should not exceed 30ºC. The fermentation time, on the other hand, will depend on the volume to be fermented. One hundred liters of wine takes approximately two days to ferment.

To keep the wine clean of bacteria during fermentation, yeasts and nutrients are often used. Yeasts are responsible for transforming fructose into ethyl alcohol. Although the grape already has yeast, it is recommended to add more to control fermentation.

Clarification And Filtering

Once the fermentation is finished, the liquid is separated from the solids and the wine is filtered. Clarifiers are used to help filter and clean and are left to act for two or three days. Those currently used consist of bentonites and other products that do not alter the aroma of the wine. At temperatures below ten degrees, stabilization is achieved in less time, as well as more effective.

The wine must be filtered at least three times, with the graduation of filters from coarser to finer. The filters can be purchased in specialized stores or laboratories. Next, and being careful not to remove the deposits, the transfer is carried out to another jar.


In the new vessel, it is important to let the wine rest with the barrel closed. Let it rest in a cool place without temperature variations, for a period of days equal to or greater than that of fermentation.

After the maceration time, we can bottle our red wine.

You may also be interested in The importance of wine at the table, and more!

The importance of wine at the table, and more!

Wine, from the guest of honor during meals to ally for good health. Let’s find out its important role together! The wine has held for thousands of years an excellent place on tables all over the world. A drink that derives from the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice. It has been produced since the times of the Ancient Romans, who helped to spread the cultivation of the vine in all the territories of the Empire.

Is wine good or bad for health?

There are many research claims of the benefits of drinking wine, but what is the truth of the matter? Is wine good or bad? Wine contains a high amount of antioxidants which can help protect your cells against damage. It also has resveratrol which helps prevent blood clotting and developing plaque in your arteries. This reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Is wine good for health?

Wine also contains fluoride, which is good for your teeth. A little wine will help prevent tooth decay and reduce cavities. However, too much wine can cause dental problems like tooth loss or crack.

Although a small amount of red wine does benefit your health, there are some significant negative effects when you consume it in excess. Drinking more than one glass of wine per day will contribute to high blood pressure, increase the risk of breast cancer in women, and liver disease.

How much wine is healthy?

is wine good or bad? how much should drink

The key to getting the benefits of wine without any health risks is moderation. Instead of drinking 1-2 glasses per day, try only one glass every two days. If you are not a big fan of red wine, white wine would be great for your health too. However, it contains fewer antioxidants than red wine, so you should eat other antioxidant-rich foods in your diet.

Try to find out more about the wine that you like before drinking. For example, some wines can be high in sugar content (sweetness) or contain sulfite preservatives. If so, they are not healthy for you because of these additives. It is also best if you drink organic wine because it does not contain pesticides.

How much wine is bad?

If you are drinking more than one glass of wine per day, it is not good for your health. Too much alcohol causes high blood pressure, which can lead to heart disease and stroke. Also, if you drink too much at one time, the ethanol in the wine will make the level of blood sugar increase quickly. This can cause or worsen diabetes, so try not to binge drink.

As you can see, it is difficult to reach a conclusion about whether the wine is good for your health. The key thing to remember is that the benefits only come if you drink one glass per day without any extra sugars or preservatives.

Healthiest red wine to drink

If you are a big fan of red wine, try drinking Pinot Noir because it has the highest amount of resveratrol which can protect blood vessels. If this type of wine is not to your taste, there are many options that have low sugar content and sulfite preservatives.

The healthiest wines contain organic grapes that have been grown without pesticides. There are also many other healthy elements in wine, such as fluoride, fluoride, and antioxidants. The ethanol makes your blood sugar level rise quickly, but it actually reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke if you drink only one glass a day.

Types of Wine to Avoid

There are some types of wine that you should avoid if you want to drink healthy. For example, port, sherry, and cocktails with wine will just give you empty calories because they contain lots of sugar. If the alcohol content is too high for your taste, then it may also cause bad hangovers or addiction. Some wines are very acidic, so they will erode your teeth.

There are some benefits to drinking wine, but no medicine in the world is good for you if you drink too much. If you have only one glass per day, then it will contribute to your health because of its antioxidants and fluoride, not forgetting the magic ingredient – moderation!

You may also be interested in Types of white wine

Why is society important for a human being?

Since ancient times, humanity has developed in communities, perhaps to survive the dangers that surrounded it. Why is society important for a human being? Because there has always been an imperative need for human beings to relate to others, to give and receive affection. Taking into account the importance of society helps us to understand that, in life, we all need one another.

Why is society important for a human being?

The family is the basic cell of society, from which institutions are based. The human being is, in essence, a social being, a subject situated in a circumstance, in a certain context at a certain socio-historical moment.

We have forgotten the importance of living in a society in times of constant change, faced with work emergencies, burdened by anxiety, dominated by pressure, and urged by an increasingly demanding present.

Living is not the same as existing, working all day, letting time go by, counting the hours until the weekend arrives. Living is not having a high level of material well-being or social status.

Man is a social being by nature

Man is, unlike many animals, a social being. This implies that your survival as an individual is impossible without interaction with other people.

If we were alone, we could not reproduce, or communicate, or learn from others. In short, each person’s life would be impoverished in every way. It could be said that life in society is neither good nor bad but is practically inevitable.

Alternatives to life in society

Throughout history, there have been cases of alternative formulas to life in society. From a religious or philosophical point of view, people have decided to isolate themselves from others. Hermits and monks who live in a community or collectives who do not want to be part of society and create their own communities.

Life in the abbeys of the Middle Ages, the Amish community, or the hippie lifestyle is three concrete examples of organizational structures disconnected from society, either partially or totally. It should be noted that these types of alternatives are an exception in the world as a whole.

The importance of living lies in our ability to appropriate our fundamental and universal rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and equality before the law.

Recognizing these rights by the National Constitution, living in society requires efforts and commitment to all rights.

Living in society has an implicit fundamental obligation

It is respect for others and the right to enjoy the same real opportunities to advance in life levels.

The family is the fundamental nucleus on which society is sustained, the social fabric’s first unit and basic cell. From this primary group, the social subject interacts in other institutional, group, and social settings.

Interaction with the other is part of building one’s own identity, which is constituted in the bond with others.

The social groups

We travel from our childhood, the school, the clubs, the social and private institutions, the university all are part of a context in which we find ourselves in a moment of our life.

This social environment, which began to influence us from the moment we were part of a family, determined our subjectivity, configuring our being.

Living in society is so important that it configures us, determines us, offers us the recognition and the gaze of the other, so necessary to constitute our inner self. That is why the space for recreation and leisure, the use of free time, the practice of sports, education, access to culture, activities all linked to life in society is so important.

You may also like to read, Here comes Summer and time to fire up the grill! What wine do you choose?

Types of white wine

For people who prefer white wine but do not have much knowledge about its classification, the choice can be a difficult task and the result may not be the most satisfactory. White wine can be presented in various shades, from the driest to the sweetest. They are obtained from grapes of the color that their name indicates. However, there may be variations in which red grapes are included. We explain what types of white wine are and how to combine them.

Types of white wine

The most used types of white wine are explained below:


It is a variety of grapes native to Burgundy, France, but is currently grown in other countries such as the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. It is perhaps the best-known variety and it is not only used for making wine, but it is also part of the basis for creating high-quality champagne. This type of grape is easy to grow and if you prefer fruity wines, this is a good choice. Pair it with spicy fish and white meats, salads with creamy dressings, rich-flavored cheeses, and seafood pasta. Serve at a temperature of 8-10ºC.

It should be noted that the flavor changes depending on the land where it is planted and how it is stored. In colder climates, the grape develops a more acidic flavor and in hot climates, the flavor can become more citric. On the other hand, in very warm areas, its notes will be more tropical.

Sauvignon Blanc

It is considered the finest variety of grapes after Chardonnay. Although it comes from the Bordeaux region of France, it is said that Australia is where you can find the best Sauvignon Blanc. It has a fresh touch, with a lot of aromas and it tends to be dry and acidic. The perfect pairing for this wine is seafood, poultry, goat cheese, spicy food, and appetizers. It should be served between 8 and 10 ºC.


It originates in cold climates, although it is also grown in hot climates. Its flavor is mild, aromatic, and low in alcohol, and can be made semi-dry or sweet. You can accompany it with fruit-based desserts, salads, appetizers, Chinese food, white meat, and fish. To take better advantage of its flavor, serve it at a temperature of 10ºC.

Pinot Blanc

It is an elegant wine and the more mature, the better. It can be confused with Chardonnay and is grown in France, Germany, Italy, and Hungary. It is usually a dry and full-bodied wine, although, in the regions of Germany, it can be a little sweeter. You can combine it with egg-based dishes such as quiches or omelets, with soft and fresh cheeses. It is also a good wine to serve starters.

Chenin Blanc

It is used as a base to make sparkling wines and champagne. The versatility of this grape allows obtaining dry, semi-dry, and sweet wines. It also needs a lot of suns to mature if it cannot become very acidic. It is a wine that should be drunk young and is the ideal pairing for spicy dishes, seafood, paellas, orange chicken, and pasta with creamy sauces. Serve between 10 and 12 ºC.

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What is a complex society and how it formed?

There are certainly a variety of perspectives on the complexity and the problems that are priority ones. This work is based on the theory of the complex social systems, known as one of the most recognized proposals at the beginning of the 2nd century. In various academic fields, it is entirely accepted that the perspective of complexity, and especially that of social systems theory, offers good elements to elaborate a diagnosis of modern societies and the conditions in which they operate. Furthermore, this diagnosis has been reflected in different disciplines. Do you know what is a complex society? However, the fact remains that in that region the implications of a complex society are still little known and its premises hardly incorporated in the analysis of contemporary social orders.

What is a complex society?

Within this framework, this work offers a unique interpretation of the characteristics that complexity gives to modern society and the problems that this condition poses to the “Demands” of unity or coherent and orderly integration of contemporary societies. We approach this problem considering a triple relationship: integration-social differentiation-complexity.

Along these lines, the concept of complexity is a “Form of observation” by means of which – and with the help of certain theoretical advances. The limitations shown by the classical treatment of the relationship between states of modernization can be overcome. And the levels of integration of contemporary societies postulated by classical functionalism. What’s more, through this scheme of relations, it is possible to show with all clarity the importance of complexity in the analysis of modern societies and the elements. The new systems theory radically distinguishes it from its classical uses and visions because the notion of complexity is not new.

In any case, the work maintains that complexity modifies the conceptual weight of the notion of integration of society. In principle, this results from complex society being characterized by not articulating all systems simultaneously and “Chains” under logic or sense.

As a result of complexity, society is integrated in a segmented way and through highly selective processes, and not – as was argued – as an ordered and coherent social whole. In short, it is integrated without a center and without a vertex that orders it in everything and for everything. To give truth to this objective, I proceed as follows. In the first place, I describe the classical postulates that determined the differentiation-integration conceptual axis. And I try to indicate its limitations. For this, the theory of modernization and the assumption of the adequacy of the social system will be useful. In that description, I understand differentiation and complexity as constitutive elements of the social order.

Social integration: the classic premise and its problems

Within the social theory, there has always been a tension between modernization processes and the capacities of the social order to integrate into an orderly fashion given those processes. As is known, this tension showed that there were clear deficits in the interpretation of the relationships between modernization and integration. Analytical limitations manifested themselves in different levels and areas.

Grossly and theoretically, the main weakness was the excessive correspondence that traditional – and classical – visions established between modernization and the forms of integration of societies.

To the traditional premise that – with its strongly normative load – postulated that there should be an adequate level of integration in the face of greater modernization, one can precede another that recognizes that modernization fosters dimensions of disintegration that are inherent to the order that it stimulates and stabilizes.

Social differentiation: its forms and integration

The complexity that a social system can achieve depends on the form of its differentiation. A segmented society is, for example, less likely to reach a complexity similar to that of a society differentiated by functional and autonomous systems. The complexity levels also determine how systems communicate, relate, and link with their environments. It is from this link that the issue of complexity is considered in systems theory. Classically, the problem is posed as follows: if the environment is always more complex than the system, under what conditions can the system stably sustain relations with the system? The relevance of the question is revealed if the classical definition of complexity is considered

Complex society and integration: a synthesis

As I have indicated, social differentiation -especially the form functionally gradient increases complexity, and this, selectivity requirements 35in communication between systems and environments. The triple link between differentiation, complexity and selectivity definitely breaks with the idea of a coherently integrated social system. Each part “Works” to complement the task of the other components under a general orientation.

Fragmentation, segmented splicing is now a condition of order, a product of social complexity. Integration then takes on a new dimension and a new analytical status. It is a more relaxed status because a complex society has characteristics different from the social orders that designed the classical theories and their premises.

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How to start a cooperative society?

Setting up a new business is an option that many people are contemplating as a possible way out of the crisis, thus generating increased self-employment. However, there are many legal forms to create a new company, so sometimes we may have doubts about knowing the function and how each type is created. So that you don’t have this problem, in this article, we will explain how to start a cooperative society.

How to start a cooperative society?

In the first place, we will have to know if the name with which we want to denominate our cooperative already exists. For this, we will have to go to the Registry of cooperative societies of our autonomous community, where we will request the certificate of the non-matching denomination. We can do it through the Internet if we have an electronic certificate, and we can request three different names.

In parallel, during the creation period, the Constituent Assembly will be held, which will be attended by all those members of the cooperative, and where they must determine the following aspects:

  • Will of the cooperative and members
  • Economic contribution
  • Internal statutes
  • Election of the different positions of responsibility

Later we will have to make the liquidation of the Tax on Patrimonial Transmissions and Legal Acts, using form 620 that we can find on the website of the Tax Agency.

We will also have to register for the following taxes and procedures:

  • Request the tax identification code
  • Registration in corporation tax
  • Registration in the economic activities tax
  • Opening of accounting books

To make the formal constitution of the cooperative, we must present before a Notary all those agreements reached by the members of the same, as well as everything exposed in the Statute of the cooperative, in such a way that they are registered by the public deed.

Finally, from the creation of the public deed, we will have one month to formalize the registration with the Cooperative Registry. It must be in the autonomous community if its activity is located only in one autonomous community and in the central one if it carries out activities in several autonomous communities.

Previous steps to create a cooperative

Suppose the workers of a company that will close its doors decide to become a cooperative to stay with the company or part of it. In that case, the first thing they must do is create a cooperative society itself because they will not be able to make any offers, especially if they are in bankruptcy. Suppose they are going to create a business from scratch. In that case, they will also have to be constituted as a cooperative society before starting their activity (something applicable to other commercial companies).

But as with all types of business, before setting out to create a cooperative society, we must make a business plan with which to carry out a complete analysis of the surrounding conditions. Obviously, we will have to decide what type of business we are going to create or manage. A mechanical workshop? A non-profit business like an NGO?

Nowadays, more and more cooperatives are emerging that are committed to technology, new organizational models, and value-added products. Thus, depending on the business we choose, we will proceed to analyze the competition that we can find in the area where we are going to locate our business activity. Studying the environment will also help us define the type of clients that we can expect and what type of goods or services we can offer them.

It is important to know that the cooperative members are associated under a free membership and voluntary withdrawal regime to carry out business activities to satisfy their economic and social needs and aspirations, with a democratic structure and functioning.

Requirements to create a cooperative

For first-degree cooperatives, a minimum of 3 members will be needed to establish them, while for second-tier cooperatives, 2 founding members will suffice.

Cooperatives must have the following governing bodies:

General assembly: decision-making is formed with the meeting of all cooperative members, who individually vote on the decisions submitted to the vote. Equivalent to the general meeting of the SA and the SL

Governing Council: carries the management and representation of the cooperative, is equivalent to the board of directors of a SA, and can establish general guidelines.

Intervention: Surveillance and review of the accounts of the cooperative.

The minimum share capital agreed in the Bylaws must be fully paid up at the time of establishing the cooperative.

Constitution process

The process of constitution of the cooperative follows these steps:

  • Negative certification of the name of the cooperative in the Registry of Cooperative Societies of the Ministry of Labor, Migration, and Social Security (or of the autonomous community).
  • Obtaining the NIF (tax identification number) in the AETA.
  • Carry out the public deed of the cooperative before a notary, which will state:
  • The identity of the grantors.
  • Manifestation of these that they meet the requirements to be partners.
  • The will to establish a cooperative society and the class in question.
  • Accreditation by the grantors of having subscribed the minimum mandatory contribution to the capital stock to be a partner and having paid it, at least, in the proportion required by statute.

If any, the value is assigned to non-monetary contributions. Certification of the grantors that the total amount of the contributions paid is not less than the minimum share capital established by the statute. Identification of people must occupy the different positions of the first Governing Council, controller, or auditors.

It should be noted that cooperatives have some tax benefits, such as being exempt from paying the tax on property transfers and documented legal acts of the Tax Authorities of the autonomous communities.

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Society: types, functions, structure, and characteristics

By society, we understand a group of individuals (generally humans, although it can also refer to certain gregarious animals) that are governed by common regulations and forms of communication and cooperation, often referred to as “ culture ”.

The constitution of a company generally involves a significant number of individuals. Although there are no defined numerical margins in this regard. Instead, it is vital that they share defining characteristics in terms of culture, history, economics and share the same geographic territory; all these above consanguineous or genetic ties.

Human societies are the object of study of Sociology, which seeks to understand the laws of organization and regulation of societies.

Types of companies

The study of human societies allows their classification based on different criteria, such as:

Its historical evolution. That is its location in the history of mankind. They are divided into:

  • Ancient or pre-industrial societies. Those that took place before the Industrial Revolution. They are generally divided into 1) hunter-gatherers and 2) agricultural and livestock.
  • Industrial societies. Those after the human development of industrial technology.

Its degree of complexity. Determined by the level of interaction of its elements. They are divided into:

  • Simple or primitive. Whose organization is tribal or small, usually governed by a patriarch or matriarch for life, and in which the tasks of society are not very well distributed (there is little specialization).
  • Complex Societies with structured political and government systems, with significant margins of specialization in the distribution of tasks (high specialization) and marked social stratification.

Its dominant culture. Societies can often be classified on the basis of the strongest cultural presence, which tends to rule over other cultures, both politically, socially, and identically. Thus, we can speak of Islamic society, Catholic society, Western society, European society, American society, literate society, knowledge society, information society, etc.

The animal “society”

Although it is not exactly a classification, it tends to distinguish between human society, with all the diversities, variants, and complexities that characterize it (especially if we try to see it as a planetary whole), and “animal societies”, which is the name that we can give the very primary level of social and territorial organization that certain animals can achieve.

Need for norms in society

All societies require rules for their operation: laws and social codes that regulate the various aspects of life.

Some of these norms are coercive, imposed by society on its new members, transmitted from generation to generation; while others are rather optional, subjective, belonging to the private sphere and function rather as a mode of recognition between individuals, who by acting in a similar way recognize themselves as equals before society.

All members of a society agree to a greater or lesser extent to be governed by rules.

Stratification of companies

Societies present a greater or lesser degree of stratification, that is, of organized and hierarchical social layers or strata.

These can be distinguished from each other on the basis of various material, cultural or political conditions.

For example, in Indian society, there are social castes that are very far apart, with little permeability between one and another, while in Western capitalist societies there are social classes that are distinguished from each other by their wealth and material goods.

Society functions

The existence of a company is considered to fulfill the following functions:

  • Make up a territory. There are no nations, countries, or territories if they are not inhabited by some specific society that defines them, names them, and establishes them as the home of their culture.
  • Allow relationships. Since society operates on the basis of commonly agreed norms. Its existence establishes a social pact that orders life and allows relationships between its individuals. In terms other than those of the vital competition of the wild.
  • Build an imaginary. The members of a society usually share a more or less broad way of seeing things and thinking about the world. This is what is called culture or, also, an imaginary, since it is a way of imagining the world. Without it, social identities could not exist.
  • It proposes a political model. Without a political model of governance and hierarchy, societies would be chaotic. For this reason, there are political theories and organisms in the different possible political regimes that allow the exercise of politics.
  • It meets the needs of its population. In principle, and in one way or another, each society will tend to fulfill the desires and needs of its population, whether materially and economically or socially and spiritually, and through methods accepted or condemned by itself.

Elements of society

We can speak of two types of constituent elements of society:

Materials. Those physical and concrete, such as a delimited territory (physical space) and a number of members (population).

Immaterial. Those of an imaginary, cultural, spiritual, or social nature. Such as an own language, a series of moral and spiritual values, a national identity, etc.

Structure of the companies

The structure of a society is the mode of operation of its various parts, that is, its architecture.

There the social strata or population groups take place, the various social institutions (public or private), the bodies of laws, the organizations of socialization, repression, and legislation (such as the courts, prisons, security forces, the military, the universities, and schools, etc.).

Each stratum and each institution, in accordance with the adopted model of society, will have a specific series of functions to fulfill.

For example, in a theocratic society the dominant church will also have political power, while in a secular society, there will be institutions alien to religion.

Origin of the companies

The societies that make up human civilization are as old as the human being himself. So there is no specific creation date.

It is estimated that ancient societies, prior to the invention of writing. Were tribal-type societies that gradually grew in number and complexity.

Evolution of societies

It is possible that particularly revolutionary events in the history of man can give rise to the birth of a new society, such as great technological developments, sudden changes in the social or political order (revolutions), or mixing and syncretism between different cultures (as in the case of Latin America ).

New partnerships

The future of human societies is a source of continuous speculation. However, traits such as diversity, multiple identities, and technological dependence seem to be central factors in the so-called “new societies”. Such as the global or virtual society.


The Ultimate Guide To Wine

The classification of the types of wine is one of the aspects that offer the greatest divergences when it comes to knowing the world of wine, and that ultimately only confuse the consumer, who does not go beyond red, white, rosé, and sparkling.

The origin of these confusions usually lies in the different classification sources, according to legislative and technical criteria. especially when it comes to special wines.

Currently, when buying wine, any consumer can choose from an impressive range of wines almost anywhere on the planet, faced with the consumer-facing problem of choice, in which labels often do not help much as they contain little descriptions. relatives.

The knowledge of the different classifications of types of wine can also facilitate this process of choice since it will allow us to group the wines into a few categories, which will be the first basic selection variable, namely: do I buy a red or a white? dry or sweet wine? sparkling or still?

Indeed, there are different ways of classifying wines, with the advice of Tapasociety, experts in wine distribution and sale, we will see below the four main groups:

  1. White wines.

Light and dry. Young and acidic wines, without body, rarely aged in oak barrels, are not usually suitable for aging.

Dry and spacious. They have more body and can age in many cases in barrel or bottle. Although they are technically dry, they can have a certain sweetness.

Dry and concentrated. More complex and with more body, they improve if they are aged in barrels and bottles, this group includes the best non-special white wines.

Aromatics. They are those from certain varieties that stand out for their aromas, being dry or semi-dry.

Semi-dry. Without being sweet, they are bottled before all the sugar has been transformed into alcohol.

Sweets and liquor. Intensely concentrated, full-bodied, and complex.

  1. Red and rosé wines.

Roses. Young wines rarely age well and are basically distinguished by their greater or lesser sweetness. Only if we look at the production process we could distinguish between roses and clarets.

Light, fruity, not aged. Almost all reds have a dry taste, but there are many differences between them, based on their density and astringency. This first group is identified with young wines. Usually, with little body, light, and low tannin, that is to say, little astringent.

Medium-bodied. The largest category of reds. It contains a large number of medium-quality wines and some of the great quality that can even be stored.

Concentrated, intense. It groups together tannic wines, with intense aromas, generally very fruity and that tend to age well.

Guarding. They are usually wines from classic regions or from the best vintages from lesser-known regions that have been aged in the bottle. They have a high density and body and their flavor improves with time, before declining.

Specials. They are the ones who break the aforementioned rule in the sense that reds are dry. They are not frequent and can be liquorous, sweet (there are more and more), etc.

  1. Sparkling wines.

Light fruity. There are many differences between sparkling wines in terms of quality and style. It is the model of the Spanish Cava and the Italian Prosseco.

Fine, intense. It is the model of French Champagne that is generally very attractive to the public.

Light and aromatic. Less known and very sweet, like the Italian muscat.

  1. Sweet and special wines.

Generous. They have in common the addition of alcohol, which is called header and aging in wood, which gives them a strong, dense, complex character. Good examples in Spain would be the wine called Manzanilla or the Fino de Jerez.

Partial fermentation. In these wines, rare in Spain and whose clearest example is Port, an incomplete fermentation is carried out, but the degree is increased with the subsequent addition of wine alcohol.

Mistelas. Although they are called wine, in reality, they are not, because fermentation is not carried out, but they are a mixture of the must with alcohol. The advantage of this method is that it respects the fruit (primary) characters to the maximum, and can even age. The best-known example is muscat, so when it comes to sweet muscat wines, they are almost always missiles.

Late harvest. They are sweet because the harvest is delayed as much as possible so that the grape has a high concentration of sugar due to overripeness so that it cannot ferment completely and therefore, the wine retains part of the sugar.

Raisined and toasted. The group includes, for example, the famous Pedro Ximénez. After the harvest, the grapes are dehydrated (in the sun or in very dry and hot spaces, depending on whether we are talking about raisins or toasted respectively), until the loss of water increases the concentration of sugar (raisins) making fermentation very difficult. , so that they require the addition of wine alcohol. Other similar examples, but that receive different names, are the French Muscats or the Italian Liquors.

Sugar, color, and quality

In order to better understand the previous groups, it is essential to understand three aspects of wine classification:

Sugar. Depending on the amount of sugar, they are classified into wines with practically no sugar called ‘dry’ (less than 5 g of sugar per liter); and sweeter wines as they contain more sugar, ordered from least to greatest sweetness in doomed, semi-dry, and sweet (ranging from 5 to 100 g of sugar per liter, or even more).

Color. According to their production method and color, they are classified in the perhaps most popular way among white grape whites (blanc de Blancs) or red grape whites (blanc de noirs), rosés (red grape partially fermented in contact with the skin) clarets (a mixture of white and red grapes fermented completely in contact with the skin) or reds (red grapes).

Quality. According to their quality and gastronomic application, one can speak of ‘table wines’ (ordinary), fine (made looking for a minimum of quality), and special, which are defined by having special composition or production characteristics.

Best wines in the world

It is very difficult to talk about which wine, or which wines, in the plural, are the best wines in the world. Whose mouth? In each country, there are more or less reputable wine guides that provide information about their evaluations of different vintages, varieties, brands, and denominations.

If you are looking for information about the best wines of antiquity (Egyptian and Roman times) we recommend our section dedicated to those wines.

Wine critics opinion

There are journalists who even have an international projection, such as Robert Parker or Jancis Robinson, and whose comments and wine tastings are followed with great attention by a good number of amateurs, and a greater number of professionals in the sector (whether they are sommeliers or managers of wineries. and distribution in different links of the chain). A high score from one of these “gurus” can make the demand for a wine grow considerably, hence their opinion is sometimes so strong that they can even influence the design of the winemaking. Which is, therefore, the best wine? Difficult question, surely, impossible to answer as such.

The influence of price and fashion

However, we will not stop at this, and we will at least try to provide some keys to respond to the curiosity that so much arouses the idea of which are the best wines in the world… and because. It is clear that there are better wines than others. For this to be so, many factors must be combined: the terroir gives a special peculiarity to some wines, the age of the vine also, the viticulture work undoubtedly helps to have a healthier and higher quality fruit. The work of the winemaker is equally fundamental. Once the product is available to the public, it must go to the street with a price. Price should normally be a measure of the quality of a product: if producing better costs more, more expensively priced wine should be better. A lot can be argued about it, but there is no doubt that a wine with a very high price is, logically, a wine where the scarcity of demand and the high supply makes its price very high. High demand does not mean that the wine is magnificent, they can play items of prestige, fashion, etc., and not only of quality.

Wine auctions

We cannot say which are the best wines in the world, but we can at least approximate the idea of ​​which wines are the most expensive. These wines that we are going to comment on are likely to be among the best wines in the world (there are undoubtedly and fortunately, many more of those on this list). The problem with these wines? Surely we can never get to know if they are that good since their price is, say, unattainable. We show a series of wines that fetched sky-high prices at auctions. These are exceptional cases, of highly prestigious brands that surely produce some of the best wines in the world.

Chateau Lafite 1787

It is a bottle that fetched a crazy price of $ 160,000 at Christie’s in London in 1985. The wine was purchased for the Forbes collection. The bottle bears Thomas Jefferson’s initials etched into the glass. This is a Bordeaux wine, from the Medoc, Premier Cru classé in the classification that has governed the destinations of Bordeaux wine prices since it was established in 1855.

Chateau Mouton Rothschild 1945

Jeroboam. A wine of supposedly enormous quality, highly sought after by investors and wine lovers, which reached the price of $ 114,614 at Christie’s in 1997. Similar to the previous case, a Premier Cru Classé.

Chateau d Yquem 1784

Yquem is the most recognized and prestigious sweet wine brand in the world. The winery is located in the Sauternes area of ​​Bordeaux. This bottle, which also includes an engraving with Thomas Jefferson’s initials, reached It Sold at Christie’s in 1986 for a staggering $ 56,588.

Massandra sherry

Now it is the turn of sweet wine from the Massandra winery. Massandra is the name of a winery with enormous history. Located in Crimea (part of present-day Ukraine), it is a winery that bottled wine for the tsars, who would consume it while staying at their summer residence in the area (Sympheropol remains a top tourist destination for Ukrainians or Russians ) This winery stored elaboration wines in nearby wineries or imported wines. There is speculation about the bottles that may be under its walls. And its figure may be close to a million units. In local wines, they specialized in sweet, Jerez-style wines. With the dismantling of the former USSR, some of the wines stored there began to be auctioned. In 2001, a wine sold at Sotheby’s in London reached 43.

Domaine de la Romanée-Conti

In fifth place on this list is a French wine that is not, however, from Bordeaux. The Bordeaux region differs from Burgundy in many ways. The first is the grapes: if Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, or Sauvignon Blanc are used in Bordeaux, in Burgundy the chosen grapes are pinot noir for reds and Chardonnay for whites. Secondly, the size of the vineyards, which are much smaller in Burgundy. The bottles are also different, and each area has given its name to a type of bottle. Romanée-Conti is possibly the highest-priced brand in Burgundy. In 1996 at Sotheby’s 8 bottles of this property reached the “symbolic” price of 224,900 dollars.

Screaming Eagle 1994

Although French wines are the ones that usually reach the highest, there are wines from other sources that also reach very high prices at auctions. This is the case with the 1994 California Screaming Eagle wine. Which was sold at Christie’s in Los Angeles in 2000 at a price of 3,833 per bottle. A bottle from this winery, a 1992 Cabernet, fetched $ 500,000 at a charity auction. We hope the pairing of this wine was not a burger with potatoes!

Chateau Mouton Rothschild 1982

Another of Bordeaux’s greats, the price per bottle in an auction of 600 of its bottles (50 boxes of 12) from the 1982 vintage (considered a great year in Bordeaux) reached 420,000 dollars (700 per bottle).

But these are just a few short wine anecdotes that are undoubtedly excellent. There is an enormous quantity of wines of equally enormous quality. Making a list of them is endless work. The history of wine is marked by many big brand names. We mention some of the biggest names for Bordeaux and Burgundy.


(In this case, all names are with Chateau in front): Haut-Brion, Latour, Margaux, Leoville-Barton, Palmer, Cos D´Estournel, Pichon-Lalande, Lynch-Bages, Talbot, Pape-Clement, Smith-Haut -Lafitte, Petrus, L’Evangile, Cheval Blanc, Ausone, Magdelaine.


We indicate the producers, not the specific brands of these. In reds: Domaine Leroy, Domaine de la Romanée Conti, Domaine Comte de Vogüé, Anne Gros, Ponsot, Armand Rousseau, Hubert Lignier, Joseph Roty, Louis Jadot, Michel Lafarge. In targets: Domaine Ramonet, Coche Dury, Etienne Sauzet, Louis Carillon, Verget, Louis Latour, Colin Deleger, Jean Noel Gagnard.

10 benefits of red wine for health and heart

Studies found that moderate wine consumption, one or two glasses a day, has positive benefits for your body

Within alcoholic beverages, red wine stands out from other options for its rich content of antioxidants and polyphenols, such as resveratrol, which, together with its low caloric intake, make it an option full of healthy properties. Here we tell you which ones and what precautions you should take into account:

10 benefits of red wine for health

  1. Take care of your teeth

Different investigations highlight that polyphenols, natural antioxidants found in red wine, could slow down the growth of the bacterial flora that is housed in the teeth and gums, and, therefore, contribute to taking care of dental health.

  1. Protect memory

According to scientific evidence, resveratrol, a polyphenol present in red wine, would improve people’s memory. The researchers found that adults who took supplements with this compound showed increased brain connections in the area that involves memory. They were also able to recall more words and their mood improved.

  1. Anticancer

Again, the resveratrol found in red wine would be responsible for benefits for the body. In this case, we found that recent studies linked it to important antioxidant action, capable of fighting cancer by hindering the proliferation of tumor cells.

  1. Protect your eyesight

The antioxidants found in red wine and grapes could inhibit the growth of new blood vessels. Associated with eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Fight hypertension

It is believed that the incorporation of red wine is balanced and healthy diets, such as the Mediterranean or DASH, would allow keeping blood pressure levels under control. In addition, there is research that found that a component of this drink, provincial, could alleviate hypertension deficient in nitric oxide synthase.

  1. Protect the heart

Studies have shown that adults who drink small or moderate amounts of some alcoholic beverages, such as white wine, red wine, and beer, are less likely to have heart disease than those who do not drink at all, or who are heavy drinkers.

  1. Lower cholesterol

Red wine could inhibit the synthesis of endothelin-1, a protein responsible for the accumulation of fats, cholesterol, and other substances along the arterial walls. This situation leads to atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. It is also linked to red wine with anti-inflammatory properties.

  1. Anticoagulant

Red wine is believed to have blood-thinning properties, even more, effective than aspirin, ideal for preventing a heart attack. This is due to the fact that it has phenols that would prevent platelet aggregation. Reducing the risk of thrombosis, that is, the formation of a clot inside a blood vessel.

  1. Against sunburn

Many of the flavonoids in grapes and red wine would protect the skin from damage caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, specialists need to conduct more studies to corroborate the mechanism behind this association.

Other benefits

Although the scientific evidence is insufficient, the consumption of red wine was linked to the prevention or reduction of the damage caused by oxidative stress at the onset of diabetes, protection of bone health, decreased risk of kidney stones, relief of reactions allergic or increased resistance to allergens, and diuretic action.

10 myths about wine: true or false?

That the world of wine is mythical, fascinating, and has an aura of elegance is undeniable. Once we delve into this fascinating topic (always in moderation), we want to find out more about climates, soils, varieties, and dive into the wonderful terroir, from which exciting Bacchic liquids emanate, which touch our hearts.

However, beyond the dazzling that the noblest drink of all always gives us, there are countless myths, doubts, and intrigues that, for many palates, are still unsolved.

Next, we will mark with a V, true, or an F, false, ten points linked to the wine planet, which will clear doubts to unsuspecting palates.

Screwcap wines are of poor quality (False)

It is very common to hear, in any wine tasting or encounter, that the screw-on labels are “berettas”. There is nothing more false than that. Not even a three peso coin is as fictitious as this wrong statement.

Wines with this closure are ideal to drink during the harvest year or in the immediately preceding vintage. This stopper is perfect for those exponents that will be drunk soon, fresh, fruity, agile, and without going through barrels.

In general, the Rosca covers young white and rosé wines, aromatically very expressive, with enveloping acidity and “dangerous” when drinking, as they are light and pleasant on the palate.

Also, in the last decade, this closure applied to different reds without aging and that is “pure fruit.” As in the previous mentions, the thread is practical in these styles of wines, it favors the preservation of aromas and represents a lower cost for wineries.

We just have to get our prejudices out of our heads and accept this closure as a valid and appropriate alternative for wines that are easy to drink, without complexities or potential for prolonged aging.

The wine is made with any fruit and essences are added (False)

Many times, we will hear that a wine smells of grapefruit, passion fruit, butter, white rose, purple, cherry, strawberry, vanilla, or coconut. This does not mean that any of the aforementioned products are dosed.

The olfactory association has to do with the so-called Aromas of wine. The primaries are typical of the grape and its terroir. In other words, genetically, for example, a Malbec smells like plum and a Cabernet Sauvignon smells like fresh green pepper.

The secondary aromas emerge from the fermentation process and give lactic or buttery notes. Sensations associated with yogurt, milk, and butter are present in the nose.

On the other hand, the tertiary notes come from aging in barrels. Chocolate, dulce de leche, smoke, coffee, coconut, and vanilla are just some of the aromatic profiles of the wines that have been aged in the wood.

“The older the better” (False)

This statement has become, over the years, a great myth. All wine has a potential aging or tentative life curve, depending on its production process.

If a wine has been to drink fresh, in its full youth, it will not have a very long vine curve and, therefore, the longer we wait for it, the worse it will get. Agile white, rosé, and red wines that do not pass through barrels should be taken as soon as possible.

A good label means that you treasure a good wine (False)

This is like when we like a person. The fact that she is physically beautiful does not guarantee that we will like or move her personality.

In wine matters, a very well designed label does not endorse the inner liquid. Logically, a colorful, eye-catching and very innovative design will invite us to buy the bottle. On the contrary, a label with a design that is lost or that does not tell us anything, can, in a first impression, move us away from the bottle.

It is proven that very good wines, due to a discreet and visually unattractive label, have sold less than a medium-quality wine, but that marketing has been known to sell very well. To think and reflect.

A heavier and more imposing bottle houses more expensive wines (True)

For marketing, prestige, or simply a differentiating issue from other wine lines, the emblematic or iconic labels of the wineries come in denser bottles with a greater presence.

This does not mean, however, that we have to like it more than an inexpensive wine, presented in a simpler and lighter bottle. It is important to always be guided by what our palate dictates and not by conditioning impositions.

Rosé wines are feminine (False)

Tremendous fallacy. Rosés, in tune with the growing trend for light, fresh and fruity products, are always a great wild card. Versatile when it comes to pairing, they adapt to a myriad of gastronomic elaborations. From minced fish, chicken, and even low-fat red meats, they are an ideal alternative to enjoy in good company.

Likewise, we have never understood the reason for the female categorization, with overtones of contempt. Rosé wine is for all palates who want to experience a fresh, fruity glass with enveloping acidity.

The wine is taken at room temperature (False)

Each type of wine is drunk at a certain temperature. Generally speaking, light whites are appropriately enjoyed between 8 and 10 degrees, while bulky whites are between 10 and 12 degrees. Light reds, between 12 and 14 degrees, and medium-bodied reds, between 14 and 16 degrees. For its part, full-bodied reds are tasted at a temperature between 16 and 18 degrees.

It is essential to respect these thermal ranges, in order to enjoy each wine wisely. Bouns track: the sparkling should be taken between 5 and 7 degrees.

The white wines go only with fish and the red ones with red meat (False)

There are white exponents, for example, based on Chardonnay, aged or fermented in oak barrels that can combine wonderfully with achuras, cuts of pork, grilled chicken, and even a cut of lean red meat. Depending on the type of elaboration and the style of white wine in mind, the options when it comes to the enogastronomic combination are multiple

A classic example, by contrast, that is worth mentioning, is the Torrontés tandem with spicy Salta empanadas. Take a pencil and paper, this is how you make this superb assembly.

As for red wines, noble and delicate varieties such as Pinot Noir go wonderfully with fatty fish, such as pacú, trout or salmon.

Likewise, a delicate Merlot or Malbec without going through barrels can go wonderfully with some white meat. Once again, we must get rid of the myths that we inherit from generation to generation.

White wine gives me a headache (False)

Exception: this statement is false in our times. Before, it has been true. To compensate for the lack of tannins, which allow us greater durability in red wine, the white ones were added to excess sulphites. Thus was born the myth (once reality) of white that gives us more than one headache.

Over time, the whites have evolved and are, without a doubt, on a par with the reds. Today, the headache of the whites will be the consequence of having had a few too many drinks.

Canned wine is a modern and very valid alternative (True)

Let’s definitely lose the fear of alternative formats. The can, the bag in box and even the aforementioned screw cap, offer us different options in the market for consumers who seek to enter the world of wine without solemnities or obsolete commandments.

Health! And until next time…

Does Wine Help with Anxiety and Stress Relief?

Resveratrol is a component present in red wine, could work in the control of anxiety and depression. Manu popular research tested the effects of this chemical component in a group of mice that were injected with corticosterone, a hormone that controls stress. When the mice were at the highest points of stress, they were given a high dose of resveratrol and their stress decreased markedly.

The presence of biogenic amines in wine

Biogenic amines induce physiological effects that can be moderately severe and manifest as an allergic condition

The presence of biogenic amines in fermented and cured foods is common. The physiological consequences can be counterproductive. The same occurs with organoleptic conditions, since an excess of these substances in foods with a high sensory profile, such as wine, can be altered.

We know about wine that is much more than watercolored with ethanol. We also know that the richer it is, the greater the volume of precursors it contains and, consequently, the greater the potential risk that it will present biogenic amines. Its presence, in addition to altering the organoleptic characteristics of wine and, by extension, of other products such as cured foods, can cause health problems.

Indeed, biogenic vasoactive amines induce physiological effects that can be moderately severe and manifest as an allergic condition: peripheral vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output, and respiration, increased blood glucose, and release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. Since biogenic amines that do not come from the diet, those generated in the body perform important functions in the nervous and vascular systems. Under normal conditions, the body has tools to eliminate them in case of accumulation, and when they have completed their specific function. And it does so through the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) that acts in different systems of the body.

In general, their presence in amounts greater than the recommended limits is a concern, since these molecules, in particular histamine, have been shown to cause headaches and other allergic symptoms, such as diarrhea, palpitations, rashes, and vomiting. Also, there are experimental indications that some biogenic amines such as cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, and tyramine can enhance the toxic effect of histamine. Therefore, we are facing a food safety problem that must be considered in all its aspects. And for this, you have to go to the root of the problem, to the origin of biogenic amines in fermented and cured foods, to know where to act to prevent or treat their presence.

Amines in wines

Today it is possible to know which and how many microorganisms are in wine quickly and reliably most red wines and some white wines undergo malolactic fermentation that catalyzes the conversion of malate to lactate. It is the biochemical degradation of one of the most abundant acids in wine by bacteria that transform it into lactic acid. This fermentation can occur spontaneously, but it is advisable to induce it, selecting the appropriate time and inoculum if you want to obtain a quality product.

In the case of amino acids (which appear in wine from must or pre-fermentation stages and in alcoholic fermentation), the bacterial action generates biogenic amines. The selection of the lactic strain is, therefore, an important criterion when it comes to preventing the formation of these amines. Others, such as the fermentation conditions or the winemaking processes, are also decisive.

However, to act against their training, it is useful to pay attention to a series of tips:

  • Avoid yeast inocula to facilitate malolactic fermentation, as they could be contaminated with bacteria that favor their appearance.
  • Carry out the malolactic fermentation with the species of lactic bacteria Leuconostoc oenos; only thus is its absence assured.
  • Sulfite directly after malolactic fermentation, thus preventing bacterial activity.
  • Barrel aging presents a certain risk in this regard.
  • Maintain impeccable hygienic conditions in the cellar to exclude undesirable microorganisms.

Organoleptic influence

A well-informed consumer about possible fermentation problems in winemaking is capable of detecting organoleptic defects present in wine, associated with certain chemical compounds caused by uncontrolled malolactic fermentation, such as putrescine and cadaverine.

In fact, in comparative organoleptic tests between expert consumers and professional tasters, it has been shown that the descriptors used and freely chosen to define the defects found in wines are similar and concordant to those used by a professional taster, although with less acuity. sensory and with less frequency of detection.

Regular wine consumers, when they are subjected to a tasting discipline, concentrating on the perceived olfactory sensations, can discriminate and distinguish between correct wines and defective wines due to the presence of the added compounds, finding inappropriate aromas caused by microbial problems that they can increase the presence of volatile biogenic amines.

These organoleptic defects can be avoided by controlling the malolactic fermentation of the wine. This control can be carried out by inoculating a selected bacterium that avoids the presence of contaminants and maintaining adequate hygienic-sanitary conditions in the winery during the production and conservation of the wine.

Formation of amines in wines

The synthesis of biogenic amines involves the coincidence of three different factors: the existence of precursors (amino acids); the presence of lactic bacteria with the corresponding decarboxylase activity; and the concurrence of suitable environmental conditions.

The existence of amino acids is qualitatively and quantitatively linked to raw materials and winemaking technology. To begin with, it logically depends on the initial concentration in the must and is a function of the grape variety, the time of harvest, the ripeness of the grape, among other production factors. A second origin can be in the addition of nutrients in the form of amino acids or inorganic nitrogen used by yeasts for their production. The maceration of the must with skin and grape seed allows the transfer of more nitrogen compounds to the liquid fraction, both more the longer and more intense the maceration. This transfer increases at the time of pressing. The addition of pectinases and proteases also increases the concentration of amino acids.

When there is lysis of microorganisms, especially yeast, there is a release of proteins, peptides, and amino acids, both more important and intense is the lysis. Finally, aging on lees ends up rounding out the scenario of the situations that originate in the presence of free amino acids in the wine.

The second factor mentioned at the beginning is the presence of microorganisms with adequate decarboxylase activities. The biggest contributors are lactic acid bacteria but differently. Regarding histamine, Oenococcus ovni is the species with the highest percentage of strains that possess the hdc gene , encoding for histidine decarboxylase and catalyst for histamine synthesize (approximately 80% of strains). Fortunately, these strains tend to have low histidine decarboxylase activities and do not increase the amount of histamine in wine too much. They rarely produce more than 5 mg / L in wine.

In contrast, Pediococcus parvulus and Lactobacillus hilgardii (16 and 27% of histamine-producing strains, respectively) can produce between 40 and 50 mg / L in wine. Some lactobacilli, or even leuconostocs, can also produce intermediate amounts of histamine. About tyramine, we have a similar situation, except for no tyramine-producing O. UFO strains found. 78% of Lactobacillus brevis strains produce tyramine, and 25% of L. hilgardii. Furthermore, it has been seen that there is a correlation between the synthesis of tyramine and phenylethylamine, perhaps because the same enzyme catalyzes both activities.

As regards putrescine, this is the most abundant biogenic amine, but it has also been observed that there is a remarkable production by the vine, so that it can already be found in significant quantities in must. The microbial synthesis also occurs occasionally, but this is not as common.

Is wine good for health? Science clarifies the truth

Although the medical consensus does not recommend the consumption of any alcoholic beverage under any circumstances, there are scientific studies that show the health benefits of moderate consumption that some beverages can provide. This is the case of wine, for example, whose research on its effects on health has grown progressively over the last 20 years. Specifically, in 2019 a historical maximum was reached with more than 1,230 scientific articles published on wine and health.

Is Kratom legal to buy in Istanbul?

Kratom is the latest entrant into the list of recreational beverages that is slowly becoming popular in the different parts of the world. Although the origin of it is in South-East Asia itself, it is now routinely exported to the USA and UK and other countries as well. The main reason behind it’s rising popularity is the number of benefits that it has on the body. However, the question is whether it is legal to buy Kratom in Istanbul. This article tries to answer that.

Why Kratom?

Kratom is an herb derived from a plant known as the Mitrogyna speciosa. It is mainly available in the form of a grounded powder that can be consumed in the form of a drink. It is not a singular type of herb though. It is mainly of three types- the white, green, and red-veined ones. This mainly depends on the biggest vein that runs along the center of the leaves. The different types have more propensity for a particular type of action. Overall, Kratom can be used for the following purposes-

  • To deal with the chronic type of pain without being heavily reliant on opioids and narcotics for relief. These types of pain can be pretty incapacitating and can actually have an effect on your lifestyle as well. Kratom can help to counter that.
  • To gain the necessary boost in energy, especially when it wards off during the course of the fat. With age, it is common to start feeling tired without indulging in many physical activities. Kratom like kratom crazy white sumatra can help in this situation as well.
  • To deal with various issues related to mental health as it helps to fight against depression, anxiety, panic attacks, and other related conditions.
  • To concentrate better at work so that the outcome and productivity increases.
  • Maintenance of sexual prowess that tends to be reduced with age.

The legality of Kratom in Istanbul

Istanbul is a wonderful city located in Turkey which also forms the border between Asia and Europe. Although known for its grandiose and scenic beauty, Istanbul is also a hub for cross-country drug transport. This is one of the main reasons why drug laws are very strict here. Moreover, since Turkey is a Muslim country, they treat possession and intake of drugs as punishable offenses. To top all that, the kind of government that exists in Turkey has a total authoritarian approach and can impose things that it doesn’t deem to be fit from various angles.

However, the good news is that Kratom is not included in the list of banned items or drugs. One reason for this could be the fact that it is not so frequently available or abused. Thus, it has not come under the radar of the legal system. If you are a regular Kratom user and you know an agent who deals with the herb, you can legally buy it. This is based on the fact that it is not mentioned in the illegal list of items.

The verdict

You can buy Kratom in Istanbul but parading about it may not be advisable. Be very careful while doing so to make sure that you are avoiding trouble.

Do you need an Aerator for Wine?

As the must-have wine accessory of 2020, many people are asking if wine aerators actually work, or if they’re a passing fad.


The short answer: They work. Vineyards and sommeliers have been using wine aerating devices and gadgets at wine tastings since they arrived on the scene because they understand the basic science of wine aeration or decanting: to reach its ideal flavor and to meld the aromatic properties in a freshly opened bottle of wine, a wine needs to breathe.

Here comes Summer and time to fire up the grill! What wine do you choose?

I love to grill at home it’s easy, convenient and most of all, my wife likes the lack of clean up!!

I have almost perfected the rib eye, just working on the timing!  But anyway, it got me thinking about when I used to live in New England and wasn’t able to grill whenever the mood strikes.

Tips On Choosing a Wine Rack

If you love wine or merely enjoy a glass or two on occasion a great wine rack where you can store your collection regardless of the size. Not only are wine racks functional but nowadays a wine rack is considered a great option in home decor. In order to determine the wine rack that would best suit your home we will look over the various options.

6 Creative Wine Glass Decorating Ideas That Will Impress Your Friends

Imagine this little story. You have invited your friends for a surprise dinner this Friday, and you want this dinner to be specially memorable. You had to break the bank to buy the most expensive wine bottle available at your local winery, so you need to make sure everyone enjoys the wine you purchased.

Personalized Wine Glasses – The Many Misconceptions Cleared

Although there is a lot of stuff available on the subject of wine and wine glasses on the internet but a big part of this information is actually a bundle of misinformation. Many a times you are told things in which the truths and lies are mixed so expertly that you are forced to believe in them. While browsing on the internet you might come across a lot of misinformation about the personalized wine glasses as well. Sometimes it is nothing more than a fight between two schools of thoughts that have completely different perspectives about wine and wine glasses.

Buy Wine Online and get it Delivered Free!

Online wine stores have been cropping up at an increased pace these days. These stores offer the best available wine from the comfort of your home. Wouldn’t it be an added benefit to avail all this with an additional benefit of wine free delivery?

Buying Wines Online Made Easier through Wine Clubs in Australia!

Wine has become part of almost every household these days. More and more people today are exploring the diversity of wine thanks to the establishment of wine clubs Australia. Australian wine clubs are amongst the most respected and authentic clubs of the wine world. A bottle bearing the insignia of an Australian wine club is considered to be amongst the top quality wines of the world.

Buy Wine Online to Try New Varieties

Those that love wine frequently have different brands or types of wine that they will gravitate toward in restaurants or when they are shopping for bottles to enjoy at home. Those that are not particularly familiar with wine may rely on certain types of wine that they have tried previously but might wish that they knew different varieties to try which might suit their tastes more appropriately. When you buy wine online you can often find wine deals on new varieties which could provide the perfect excuse to branch out into new horizons in the wine tasting world.

Best Gifts for Men: Good, Cheap and Original

Soon comes the time to exchange Christmas gifts, so if you want to make a gift for an uncle, friend or some particular man, it would be best to know which is what he would like to receive as a gift from you , it’s time you know what would be the best gifts for men.

A Guide to Investing in Food and Beverages

There are many people looking to invest for the future. One of the areas of investment is food and beverages. This can involve buying the items and storing them over a number of years or taking out stocks in various companies. It has been popular for decades but it is important to be sensible and keep an eye on the market to make sure you make the most of this type of investment.

5 Tips on Buying Wine Online

Technology has been advancing on a day-to-day basis in the era we live in. Most people opt for online shopping as it saves both time and money. Like all products in the market, we have wines as well. The best wines come from age-old wineries where wine making has been passing generation after generation.

International Tempranillo Day

In 2011, TAPAS organized the first annual International Tempranillo Day: A celebration of the Tempranillo grape with all its regional synonyms. We encouraged everyone to open a bottle of Tempranillo, enjoy the fun, and share their experiences online with the hashtag #TempranilloDay or #Tempranillo.

Tempranillo, indigenous to Spain and used in the great Rioja and Ribera del Duero wines, is planted in 500,000 acres of the world’s vineyards, making it the fourth most planted wine grape, and that would be enough to celebrate.

Until recently, this noble grape’s entire acreage was almost all grown in Spain. Perhaps others were confused by the 60 or more regional synonyms for Tempranillo, which in itself may be a record worth celebrating.

But things have changed: knowledge of this noble grape is rapidly spreading, creating excitement and a spirit of cooperation among adventurous vintners bringing this Old World variety to New World soils. Tempranillo today is grown in many more countries including the United States, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina, South Africa, Australia, France, Portugal, Turkey, Canada, China, Thailand, and more. And that’s why we established International Tempranillo Day.

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